Class 2nd PUC English Textbook Solutions

WHERE THERE IS A WHEEL – Class 2nd PUC English Textbook Solutions

CHAPTER: – 13
TOPIC: – WHERE THERE IS A WHEEL
P. SAINATH


SUMMARY

Where There is a Will by P. Sainath highlights how there is a huge revolution that very easily happens in Pudukkottai, a small  District  in  Tamil  Nadu.  It  is  a  very  rare  &  unique opportunity  when  women,  especially  not  very  literate become the cause of change.  
In Pudukkottai women started learning bicycling as a means of  freedom.  This  carried  out  to  be  chain  reaction  when women  felt  that  trying  to  make  people  around  them  also enjoy  independence  was  the  reason  why  women  were taught cycling free of cost and voluntarily. Women who had learned  cycling and  had the ability to train the  others  were called master trainers and they would try to train the others.  Fortunately,  all  those  women  who  joined  the  literate movement were diverted towards the new cyclist movement thereby, twin advantages  were  in their favor.   Women who joined  the  neo-cyclist  movement  were  drawn  towards  the neo-literate  movement  which  meant  that  people,  especially women  were able to  gain a lot of freedom and also oppose the male domination.   
There  were  occasions  when  women  used  cycles  for multitasking,  i.e.,  especially  so  when  women  tried  to purchase  gents cycle and they used the front carrier to seat children, first their produce  on the carrier and  hang pots of water behind.  
Doing so, they were able to:
1. Reduce their dependency on public transport.
2. Sell more goods
3. Take care of their children
4. Save time and money for their comfort.
Initially, when this movement started, there were many men who  opposed  it,  it  was  then  that  the  Arivoli  Iyakkam movement (light of knowledge) began and many volunteers of  this  movement  would  attack  men  and  warn  them  when they made nasty remarks.  Added to this, the movement had one  volunteer called Muthu Bhaskaran  who  had  written an anthem song that was sung by these and this further united their struggle.  
DC  Sheela  Rani  Chunkath  moved  the  banks  to  provide loans for all those women who wanted to purchase bicycles.  This  further  strengthened  the  women  and  instilled  a  lot  of confidence  in  them.   One  of  them  tries  to  describe  the journey  on  her  bicycle  equivalent  to  a  plane  journey because  they  were  never  exposed  to  any  technological development.  
The  narrator  P.  Sainath  who  returns  to  Pudukkottai  after some  time  realizes  how  that  revolution  and  the  same attitude still existed in Pudukkottai and the same description is seen in the postscript written by him.

I.    Answer the following questions in a word, a phrase or a sentence each: –

1.    Where did the cycling movement start?
Ans: Pudukkottai  

2.    When did the cycling movement start?

Ans: In 1991

3.    What  does  bicycling  symbolize  for  most  of  the  neo literate women?
Or
What does bicycle represent for the rural women in Pudukkottai?
Or
What does the bicycle represent for the rural women?      
                                                                    
Ans: A symbol of independence, freedom and mobility.
 
4.    What does ‘Arivoli Iyakkam’ mean?

Ans: Light of knowledge movement.  

5.    What  does  cycling  movement  offer  to  the  women  in Pudukkottai?

Ans:  A  way  out  of  enforced  routines,  around  male imposed barriers.  

6.    Who was the brain behind the cycling movement?

Ans: Sheela Rani Chunkath the former District Collector.  

7.    Which  international  agency  sanctioned  fifty  mopeds for Arivoli women activists?

Ans: UNICEF  

8.    Why  did  some  women  in  Pudukkottai  prefer  the gents’ cycle?
Ans: Because these have an additional bar from the seat to the handle.  

9.    Who wrote the famous cycling song that has become the anthem of the cycling movement?
Or
Who  wrote  the  famous  cycling  song  in  Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu?

Ans: Muthu Bhaskaran, an Arivoli activist.  

10.    What gave freedom to the women of Pudukkottai in Tamil Nadu?
Ans: Cycling.  

11.    What did UNICEF give the Arivoli women activists of Pudukkottai?

Ans: Fifty mopeds.  

12.  Why  couldn’t  the  rural  women  of  Pudukkottai  go by bus to other villages? Give any one reason. 

Ans:  Because  buses  were  not  frequent/poorly  connected routes/could not afford it.  

12.    Name  the  owner  of  Ram  cycles,  a  bicycle  dealer  in Pudukkottai.
Ans: S. Kannakarajan.  

13.    How  many  female  cyclists  participated  in  the  all- women’s rally in ‘Where There is a Wheel’? 

Ans: More than 1500.

14.    Who is the central coordinator of Arivoli?
Or
Who  was  the  central  coordinator  of  the  Arivoli Iyakkam?
Or
Who  was  the  central  coordinator  of  the  cycling movement in ‘Where there is a wheel’?     

Ans: N. Kannammal.  

15.    Which  of  the  vehicles  is  called  ‘Humble’  in  ‘Where there is a wheel’?               
Ans: Bicycle / Cycle.  

16.    Why did some women prefer ‘Gents’ cycle?                    
Ans: Because they could seat a child on the additional bar / Shortage of ladies’ cycle.  

17.    What had stunned the inhabitants of Pudukkottai on the International Women’s day?
           
Ans:All  women’s  cycle  rally  in  which  over  1,500  female cyclist participated.

II.    Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:  
III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words:   

1.    Describe  the  Arivoli  Iyakkam,  Light  of  Knowledge Movement, from the lesson Where There is a Wheel’,
Ans:Pudukkottai  district  in  Tamil  Nadu  is  known  for  its vigorous  literacy  drive  called  Arivoli  Iyakkam.  To  spread the  message  of  education,  the  cycling  movement  was started by Arivoli.  A large number of women  learnt to ride bicycles here, Cycling became a symbol of social mobility. In  rural  Pudukkottai,  young  women  who  had  just  become literates, moved fast onbicycleson the roads. The increasing number  of  women  cyclists  indicates  progress  of  society Cyclingwas  liberating  and  gave  the  women  freedom  and confidence to move on their own.So women learning to ride bicycles  has  become  a  significant  part  of  the  literacy movement.

2.    How does cycling help the women of Pudukkottai for economic gains?

Ans:In  his  essay  ‘Where  There  is  a  Wheel’,  P.  Sainath describes the optimism that cycling has brought about in the lives  of  women  of  Pudukkottai,  a  poor  district  of  Tamil Nadu.  The  district’s  literacy  drive  known  as  Arivoli Iyakkam, encourages women to learn cycling, they conduct cycle  training  camps.  Cycling  has  given  them  confidence along  with  mobility.  It  increases  the  income  of  the  rural women. Women sell agricultural products not  only to  their village people but also to the people of other villages. They don’t need to wait for buses which are not frequent. Cycling saves  time.  They  don’t  need  to  walk  long  distances.  They finish their work easily and quickly.They carry their children,  the  produce  and  two  pots  of  water  on  their bicycles, thus, combining their difficulttasks.  

3.    Why does Palagummi Sainath state that Pudukkottai in  Tamil  Nadu  remains  unique  among  the  India districts?

Ans:In  his  essay  ‘Where  There  is  a  Wheel’,  P  Sainath shares his  observation that changes  had taken place in the poor  district  of  Tamil  Nadu  known  as  Pudukkottai.  The rural women have chosen cyclingas a medium. They  have learnt  cycling  which  has  given  them  confidence,  freedom and above all mobility. Arivoli Iyakkam, the literacy drive has  made  the  best  use  of  this  skill.  Young  girls  could continue  their  studies  and  women  could  move  around without  depending  upon  the  male  members  of  their families.  They  have  started  selling  their agriculturalproducts  carrying  them  on  their  cycles.  There was a passion among the  women to learn  cycling. Former DistrictCollector Sheela Rani Chunkath encouragedwomen to  take  loans  from  banks  to  buy  cycles.  Arivoli  activist conducted  training  camps  to  teach  cycling  to  women. Thus,  this  humble  vehicle  made  Pudukkottai  a uniquedistrict and an inspirational example for others.  

4.    List  the  activities  taken  up  by  Arivoli,  to  empower women through cycling.
Ans:Cycling  is  a  social  movement  at  Pudukkottai,  a poor district  in  Tamil  Nadu.  It  has  given  a  new  life  to  many rural  women.  Cycling  is  a  symbol  of  independence, freedom  and  mobility.  It  is  supported  by  the  district’s literacy  drive,  led  by  Arivoli.  It  was  the  brain  child  of popular district collector, Sheela Rani Chunkath. The main intentionbehind this was to spread literacy among the rural women.  As  a  part  of  this,  she  pushed  banks  to sanctionloans  for  women  to  buy  bicycles.  Arivoli  has master-trainers  who  train  the  interested  activists  and  it conducts  exhibition-cum-contests.  In  1992,  more  than 70,000  womendisplayed  their  cycling  skills  at  the  public exhibition  run  by  Arivoli.  Being  impressed,  UNICEF sanctioned  fifty  mopeds  for  Arivoli  women  activists. Arivoli  training  camps  also  train  a  number  of  prospective learners.  The  neo-literates  and  the  neo-cyclists  even  sing songs thatencourage bicycling.  

5.    Cycling  as  a  movement  has brought  about a radical change in Pudukkottai. Explain.
Or     
How  has  cycling  benefitted  the  rural  women  of Pudukkottai?
Or
How has cycle transformed the lives of many women in Pudukkottai?  
              
Ans:Pudukkottai,  one  of  the  poorest  districts  or  Tamil Nadu, is a witness to a radical change, as the rural women. especially  the  neo-literates  have  taken  to  cycling.  It  has become  a  symbol  of  independence,  freedom  and  mobility to  them.  Women  agricultural  workers,  quarry  laborers, teachers,  all  have  made  cycling  a  passion.  They  proudly admit  that  their  confidence  has  boosted  and  their dependencyon  men  has  reduced.  The  bicycle  even  allows themto multitask. One can come across women carting  provisions,  fetching  water  and  even  selling  their  produce, sometimes  with  their  children  on  their  bicycles.  Though  it does not boost their economy directly, it does helpthem to earn more as they can cover longer distances. So, invariably cycling has changed the lives of women of Pudukkottai.  

6.    On  the  basis  of  your  reading  of  ‘Wheel  Brings Progress’,  can  you  say  that  cycling  has  proved  itself  a socialmovement in Pudukkottai.
Ans:Yes,  cycling  is  seen  as  a  social  movement  in Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu. In 18 months over 1,00,000 rural women,  most  of  them  neo-literates,  took  to  bicyclingas  a symbol  of  independence,  freedom  and  mobility.  The cycling  movement  has given  women the confidence. It has reduced their dependence on men. Women saw a direct link between cycling and their personal freedom. Women can do many things on their own without expecting help from men. But  Arivoli  movement  gave  cycling  social  sanction.  When women learnt cycling, they didn’t need to depend on men of the family for moving about. Sheela Rani Chunkath, former district  collector,  encouraged  women  to  learn  cycling  for mobility.  

7.    Justify  the  statement  ‘Wheel  brings  progress’  with reference to Where There is a Wheel’.        
Ans:  Cycling  has  enabled  rural  women  to  be  independent, free and mobile. The productivity of these rural women has increased  due  this  new  independence.  Women  no  longer have  to  walk  long  distances  to  fetch  water  or  tosell  their productsor  to  bring  provision.  She  nolonger  has  to  depend on  public  transport,  so  the  time  saved  can  be  utilized  for other  purposes  like  cooking  and  guiding  children  in  their studies.  It  has  reduced  fatigue.  It  has  increased  rural women’s income by giving the women freedom to sell more their products in and around other villages. It has increased their leisure time. So that she can take adequate rest. It has contributed to their self-respect which is vital.  Women  agricultural,  laborers,  quarry  laborers,  village health  nurses,  Balwadí  and  Anganwadi  workers,  gem cutters and school teachers, gram sevika and  mid-day  meal workers and school and college students have benefitted by cycling.  Neo-literates  and  Neo-cyclist  women  have  a  direct  link between cycling and their personal independence P. Sainath describes  the  feelings  of  rural  women  who  have  learnt ‘cycling’.  They  feel  a  new  kind  of  independence,  freedom and  mobility  has  come  to  their  monotonous  lives.  It  has given  them  confidence  and  reduced  theirdependence  on men.  Cycling  has  offered  a  way  out  of  enforced  routines, around male-imposed barriers.  

8.    What  benefits,  according  to  P.  Sainath,  has  cycling brought into the lives of rural women?    
   
Ans:  According  to  R  Sainath,  the  introduction  of  cycling for  women  in  Pudukkottai  district  has  brought  about  a tremendous change in the lives of the rural women. Cycling has empowered women agricultural worker’s village health nurses,  Balwadí  and  anganwadi  workers,  gem  cutters, Grama Sevikas and school teachers, both economically and  politically.  Earlier,  some  of  the  women  who  used  to  sell agricultural or other produce within a group of villages had  to commute by bus. For them,  now the bicycle cuts down on time, earlier wasted in waitingfor buses.  Secondly,  it  gives  them  much  more  time  to  focus  on selling  their  produce.  Earlier,  they  had  to  rush  back  early to  tend  to  the  children  and  perform  other  chores  like fetching  water  etc.  Now,  these  women  can  combine different  tasks  with  non-challenge.  Similarly,  quarry workers  had  to  go  too  far  off  places  because  their  work places were cut off from the main areas. Now, by learning cycling they have become mobile. Women can now collect water as well as cart provisions from other places on their own.  

9.    Comment  on  how  cycling  reduced  women’s dependence on men with reference to ‘Where there is a wheel’.
                                                           
Ans:  Tens  of  thousands  of  neo-literate  rural  women  in Pudukkottai  district  have  discovered  a  new  way  of overcoming  their  backwardness,  of  asserting  themselves by  learning  to  ride  a  bicycle.  This  simple  and  humble vehicle has done wonders in their lives. It has empowered women  by  giving  them  mobility  and  the  opportunity  to spread  their  wings.  Knowing  how  to  ride  a  bicycle  made these  women  self-confident,  reduced  their  dependence  on men,  and  helped  them  to  break  the  social  barriers imposedon them by a male-dominated society. It helped to boost theirincome as these women could sell their products even  in far-flung areas, they saved time  wasted in  waiting for  buses,  they  could  easily  do  several  tasks simultaneously like shopping for provisions and collecting water.  They  were  able  to  save  a  lot  of  time,  which  they could  use  to  take  rest,  spend  with  their  children  or  in  any manner  they  chose.  Thus,  the  drudgery  of  their  lives  was considerably  reduced  and  most  importantly  cycling  gave them a sense of self-respect which is very important.  

10. How has bicycle brought a total change in the lives or rural women as in ‘Where there is a wheel’?     
                                                                    

Ans:  Pudukkottai,  one  of  the  poorest  districts  of  Tamil Nadu, is a witness to a radical change, as the rural women, especially  the  neo-literates  have  taken  to  cycling.  It  has become  a  symbol  of  independence,  freedom  and  mobility to  them.  Women  agricultural  workers,  quarry  laborers, teachers,  all  have  made  cyclingapassion.  They  proudly admit  that  theirconfidence  has  boosted  and  their dependency on  men  has reduced. The bicycle  even allows them  to  multitask.  One  can  come  across  women  carting provisions,  fetching  water  and  evenselling  theirbicycles. Though  it  does  not  boost  their  economydirectly,  it  does help  them  to  earn  more  asthey  can  coverlonger  distances. So,  invariably  cycling  haschanged  the  lives  of  women  of Pudukkottai.  

KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER:

  • Cycling became a social movement in Pudukkottai District.  
  •  Sheela Rani Chunkath started the idea of cycling in 1991.
  •  She  included  mobility.  Jameela  Bibi,  Fatima  and Avakannistarted  cyclingnot  give  attention  to  the dirty remarks. Arivoli Iyakkam ledliteracy drive.
  •  Muthu  Bhaskaran  composed  the  cycling  song Cycling is a symbol Song.
  •  Cycling  is  the  symbol  of  Independence,  freedom and Mobility.
  • N. Kannammal gave the rural women confidence.   
  • Cyclingreduced their dependence on men.   
  • They  bring  water,  selltheir  agricultural  or  other products on their bicycle.   
  • Itsaves time, increases leisure time.    
  • It boosts income.   
  • It has brought the sense of self – respect    
  • N.  Kannammal  said,  ‘It  is  a  Himalayan achievement’.  


RECAPITULATION:  

  Cycling as a movement in Pudukottai
  Rural women’s participation
  Helped to fight against poverty and dependence
  N. Kannammal- the pioneer of cycling movement
  Vicious attacks on women
  Cycling training camp at Arivoli on Sundays
   Cycling- the brainchild of Sheela Rani Chunkat
  It helped in the literacy drive
  Cycling boosted income and reduced dependence  

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