Class 10 Social Textbook Solutions

THE IMPACT OF BRITISH RULE IN INDIA – Class 10 Social Textbook Solutions



1. Diwani Adalat in civil court was introduced by ________ (Warren Hastings)
2. The post of Superintendent of Police was created by _________ (Cornwallis)
3. The Permanent Zamindari system was introduced in Bengal and Bihar provinces in________ (1793 AD)
4. The Land tax system introduced by Alexander Reed is _____ (Ryotwari System)
5. The British Officer who supported modern education in India is ________ (Warren Hastings)
6. The Regulating Act was implemented in the year _____ (1773 AD)


1)Illustrate the judicial system formulated through East India Company.

1. Warren Hastings established two types of courts.
2. He established ‘Diwani Adalat’ as civil courts.
3. In this court, Hindus and Muslims were given justice according to their religion laws.
4. ‘Military Adalat’ were the criminal courts.
5. Here the trials were as per the Islam laws.
6. The criminal courts were under the control of Qajis.
7. British law on criminal laws was slowly implemented.
8. Civil courts came under the administration of European officers.

2)What are the measures undertaken at the time of the British in Police system?

1. Cornwalis established a police department for the first time in India.
2. He created a new post of Superintendent of Police.
3. He divided a district into many ‘stations’.
4. He placed stations under ‘Kotwals’ and villages under ‘Chowkidars’.
5. Kotwal had to control the thefts and other crimes in the villages.
6. Later the police system came under British Officers.
7. Police officers came under the magistrates.
8. In 1861, the Indian Police Act was implemented.

3)In permanent Zamindari system the Indian farmers “were born in debt, lived in debt and died in debt”. How? OR ‘Permanent zamindari system benefited the British and the zamindars but not the peasants.’ Analyze.

describe the condition of peasants under permanent zamindari system.
1. It was implemented by Cornwallis.
2. In this system, the Zamindar became the landowner.
3. On a set date every year, he had to pay land tax to the British.
4. This system created a new group called ‘Zamindars’
5. He used to keep excess collected money for himself.
6. This system benefited the Zamindars & the British.
7. The farmers were severely exploited.
8. The farmer’s life was completely disrupted.

4)What were the main aspects of Ryotwari system?
1. It was implemented by Alexander Reed in the Barmahal region.
2. Later, Thomas Monroe started in Madras and Mysore regions.
3. It established a direct link between the farmer and the company.
4. The tiller became the owner of the land.
5. But farmers had to pay 50 percent of tax.
6. Due to this heavy tax, the farmers suffered highly.
7. The revenue officers were ruthless in their collection.
8. Many a times, farmers took loans and lost their

5)What were the effects (impact) of British Land Taxes?
1. A new exploiting class called ‘Zamindar’ was created.
2. Farmers were severely exploited.
3. Land became a commodity.
4. Many Zamindars also had to mortgage their land.
5. The Agricultural land was commercialized.
6. Money lenders became strong.
7. The land could be mortgaged.
8. Indian farmers had to grow the raw materials for industries of England.

6)Make a list of the effects of British Education in India.
1. Indians could develop modernity, democracy, nationalistic ideas.
2.Local literature and languages were encouraged.
3. Periodicals started emerging.
4. Circular newspapers criticized British rule.
5. New Social and religious reform movements emerged.
6. Indians were influenced by Rousseau, J.S Mill, Montesquieu ideas.
7. Freedom fighting around the world influenced the Indians.
8. Indians realized their rich tradition.

7)What were the restrictions imposed in Regulating Act?
1. The Bengal Presidency gained control over other two Presidencies.
2. The Governor of Bengal became the Governor General.
3. He got the power to control over the other two presidencies.
4. To conduct war or peace, two presidencies required the permission of Bengal.
5. The Supreme Court was established in Calcutta.
6. Due to all these, company’s affairs came under the control of British government.

8)What were the important features of the Indian Government Act, 1858?

1. East India Company’s license was cancelled.
2. India was brought under the direct administration of England Queen.  
3. The Governor General post was changed into ‘Viceroy’.
4. Canning became the first Viceroy of India.
5. A new post called ‘Secretary of State for India’ was created.
6. A Council of India was created to help him.

9)How does India Government Act of 1935 become the base of Indian Constitution?
1. It allowed for the formation of a Federal System in India.
2. Reserve Bank of India was established.
3. Diarchy was established at the Centre.
4. Diarchy was abolished in the provinces.
5. The provinces were given autonomy.
6. The Federal Court was established.
7. This act allowed India to form a responsible government.
8. This act was applicable both to the Indian principalities and British India regions.
10)What are the important features of 1919 Act?
1. A Bi-cameral legislative body was created.
2. Diarchy was allowed at provinces.
3. A High Commissioner was appointed to India.
4. Promised to improve local self-government.
5. Provincial budget was separated from central budget.
6. ‘Separate Electoral College’ was again extended.  


1)The British used ____ policy to win over the Indian kings.
(Policy of divide and rule)

2)Why did the British use the policy of divide and rule to conquer the Indian kings? 

India was then divided into hundreds of royal dynasties. They were fighting with each other. Hence the British use the policy of divide and rule to conquer them.

3) _________ introduced the administration of civil services.

4)The Regulating Act was passed in India by the English Government in ______

5)As the name suggests, the aim of Regulating Act was to ______(enforce control over employers)

6)Fort William College in Calcutta was founded in 1800 by ______________  to educate those who wanted to join the civil service.
(Corn Wallis)

7)“All the natives of Hindustan are completely corrupt” said by ________


8)When did the new judicial system (European model) take root in India?
The new judicial system began to take root in India, when the British rule began taking over from the Mughal rule.

9)What was the benefit to the British of implementing a new centralized judicial system in India?
With the implementation of new judicial system in India, the British overtook the authority of the Mughal and established their supremacy.

10)How many types of courts have established by Warren Hastings in each districts?
(two types of courts)

11)Which are the two types of courts introduced by Warren Hastings?
1) ‘Diwani Adalat’ – means civil courts
2) ‘Military Adalat’ – means criminal courts

12)Civil courts came under the administration of __________

(European officers)

13)During the British period, who was the in charge of maintaining the internal law and order situation?

(The Police)

14)Who implemented the efficient Police System for the first timein India?

15)Cornwallis divided each district into ________

16)During Cornwallis, who were the incharge of stations and villages in the police department?

Stations were under ‘Kotwala’ and the villages were under ‘chowkidar’.

17)In the police department created by Cornwallis, What were the duties of ‘Kotwala’? 

Kotwals had the duty of controlling of thefts, crimes and other law violations at village level.

18)Why did the police system come under the British Officers?
As severe drought of 1770 led to weak law and order situation, the police system come under the British Officers.

19)The system of appointing British Magistrate started in the year _____

20)During the British rule whom under did the police officers come?

21)Which act was the main foundation of law and order in the British administration? 

(Indian Police Act, 1861)

22)Which act allowed qualified Indians to be appointed as police officers?

(Police Commission Act of 1902)

23)The pillar of the administrative system of the British period was _____

24)In the British Army, the highest rank available to an Indian was ______

25)By which commission’s recommendation, the British army system was redesigned?
(Peel Commission – 1857)

26)After which incident, the British government appointed Peel Commission?

After the incident of First war of Indian Independence in1857.

27)The amount payable annually by the East India Company to the British Government was _______
(four lakh pounds)

28)What was the basic objective (purpose) of implementing ‘Permanent Zamindari System’ by Cornwallis?

The basic objective wasto generate steady revenue annually.

29)When, where & who was implemented the ‘Permanent Zamindari System’?

It was implemented in 1793, in Bengal and Bihar provinces by Cornwallis.

30)According to Permanent Zamindari System, who became the land owner?

31)What was the responsibility of the Zamindar under permanent zamindari system?
The Zamindar had to pay the agreed land taxes to the company on a set date every year. 

32)To which provinces, did the Permanent zamindari system gradually extend?
Extended to Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Varanasi provinces.

33) “Indian farmers were born in debt, lived in debt and died in debt due to the land tax policies of British” – Who said this?
(Charles Metcalf)

34)How did the Mahalwari system implemented?
With regard the payment of land tax, the company entered into an agreements in the ‘Mahals’ (Taluks) of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi. In this way the ‘Mahalwari’ system implemented.

35)‘Mahal’ means ___________

36)Who were the important part of Mahalwari system?
(Big & Small Zamindars)

37)Why did many Zamindars lose their landholdings under the Mahalwari system?
As the company fixed heavy land tax than the production, many zamindars lost their land ownership under the Mahalwari system.

38)Who experimented with Mahalwari system?(RM Bird and James Thompson) 39)Who started Ryotwari system?
(Alexander Reed – in 1792)

40)Who introduced Ryotwari system in Madras and Mysore provinces?
(Thomas Monroe – in 1801)

41)Why did Thomas Monroe implement Ryotwari system in Madras and Mysore provinces?

Because, during this period most parts of Madras and Mysore provinces were under the administration of the empire.

42)Which revenue system established a direct link between the farmer and the government?
(Ryotwari System)

43) Under which revenue system, did the government recognize the tiller as its owner of the land?

(In Ryotwari system)

44)The amount of revenue in Ryotwari system was __________


45)Which revenue system gave theland ownership for small farmers?

Ryotwari System gave theland ownership for small farmers.

46) ‘Calcutta Madrasa’ was started by ___________
(Warren Hastings – in 1781)

47) Who started the Sanskrit College at Banaras in 1792?
(Jonathan Duncan)

48) Who pressed for the extension of British education in India?
(Charles Grant)

49)After who became the Governor General, the expansion of British education got the most encouragement in India?

(William Bentick)

50)To whom Bentinck appointed as the member of Governor General’s Executive  Committee? (Macaulay)

51)Which report on English education was the basis of modern Indian education system?

(Macaulay’s Report in 1835)

52)What was the main objective of Macaulay’s educational policy?
The main objective of Macaulay’s educational policy was the ‘creation of a new class of Indians who are Indian in body, British in intelligence, opinion & taste’.

53)When did English language start to be used as a medium in Indian education system?

(After 1830s)

54)What was the effect of Charles Wood Commission recommendation?
Based on the recommendations of the Charles Wood Commission, Dalhousie established new universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857.

55)The Regulating Act came into force in _______
(in 1773)

56)What were the three independent and separate provincesof the British Company before the Regulating Act came into force?

(Provinces of Bengal, Mumbai and Madras)

57)The Act, which led to the Bengal Presidency taking over the other two Presidencies was ________

(The Regulating Act)

58)By which Act, did the Governor of Bengal become the GOVERNOR GENERAL of all the three Presidencies?
(By the Regulating Act)

59)An Act empowering the Governor General to direct, control and supervise the Bombay and Madras Presidencies was _________

(The Regulating Act)

60)The Act enabling the establishment of the Supreme Court at Calcutta was ________

 (The Regulating Act).

61)How many judges were there when the Supreme Court was established in Calcutta?
One is the Chief Justice and three Ordinary Judges.

62)What was the ORIGINAL PURPOSE of enacting the Regulating Act?
The original objective was to bring the East India Company’s administration under the control of the British government.

63)What was the original purpose of Pitts India Act? OR Why did the Pitts India Act enacted? The original purpose of the Pitts India Act was to clarify the inconsistencies of the Regulating Act and to clarify the limits of the powers of the Company Government.

64)An Act which created a new committee called ‘Board of Controllers’ in India was _______
(Pitts India Act)

65)Pitt’s India Act was enacted in India in the year _______

66) As per Pitts India Act, the total members in the ‘Board of Controllers’ was _____

67)Which organization was replaced in place of the ‘Board of Directors’ in the Pitts India Act?
(‘Board of Controllers’)

68)What are the functions of the ‘Board of Controlllers’ implemented by the Pitts India Act?
This council was empowered to direct and control the issues related to Land taxes, Military and Civil areas.

69) Which act declared that “the Indians have attained their paramount power in the name of the British Empire only, but not on their own”?
(Pitts India Act)

70)Act which conclusively curtailed the political rights of Indians _______
(Pitts India Act)

71)Which act declared the British government as the ultimate sovereign over the Company’s territories in India?

(Pitts India Act)

72)What was the main purpose of the Charter Acts? 

Extension of license of East India Company in India.

73) For how many years, were the Charter Acts enacted?
(once in 20 years)

74)How many charter acts were enacted in total?

(Four Charter Acts enacted)

75)In which years were the Charter Acts enacted?
(in 1973, 1813, 1833 & 1853)

76)Which of the four Charter Acts enacted are the most important?

(Charte Acts of 1813 and 1833)

77)What would have been included while renewing the Charter Acts?
The new rules and regulations found fit by the British Government were included.

78)Which act allowed not only the company but also ALL THE ASPIRANTS to do business in India?

(Charter Act of 1813)

79) With the enactment of which act, the free trade in India started?
(With the enactment of Charter Act of 1813)

80)The Charter Act of 1813 started a new era of British free trade in India. Why?
Because, this act allowed not only the company but also all those who wanted to do business in India.

81)To whom did the Charter Act of 1813 gave the power of appointing the Governor General and the Commander-in-Chief Staff?
(To the Board of Directors)

82)Which Act gave the churches to enter India officially?

(Charter Act of 1813)

83)Which Act allowed the missionaries to come to India?
(Charter Act of 1813)

84)An Act which allowed the expansion of Christianity and the extension of English education in India was ______
(Charter Act of 1813)

85) By which act, the Governor General of Bengal was named as the ‘GOVERNOR GENERAL OF INDIA’?

(Charter Act of 1833)

86) An Act which empowered the Governor General to regulate and direct all trade was _______
(Charter Act of 1833)

87) An Act declared no discrimination on grounds of religion, colour, birth was __________
(Charter Act of 1833)

88) Which Act mandated the Governor General to appoint a law professional as member to his executive committee?
(Charter Act of 1833)

89)By which act ALL BRITISH TRADING COMPANIES were given free license to enter India?
(By the Charter Act of 1833)

90) Which act throws light on internal situations of India and politicaldevelopments of England during the 1830s?
(Charter Act of 1833)

91)Why was the administration of India handed over to the Britain Queen from the East India Company?
Due to the First war of Indian Independence in 1857.

92)What were the important laws passed in India during the rule of British Queen?
Government of India Acts 1858, 1861, 1892, 1909, 1919 and 1935.

93) Through which Act, British India came under the direct rule of the British Government?
(Indian Government Act 1858)

94) What was the announcement of British Queen Victoria on November 01, 1858?
She announced that, she will develop all the sectors of India during her administration. 

95) The licence of East India Company was cancelled by the Act of _______     
(Indian Government Act 1858)

96) Which act created the post of ‘Viceroy’, instead of the post of Governor General?
(Indian Government Act 1858)

97) Who became the first Viceroy of India?

98) ‘Secretary of State for India’Act which led to the creation of the post of _______ 

(Indian Government Act 1858)

99) To help the Secretary of State for India’s administration, which council was created?
(A Council of India was created)

100) By which Act, did the Indians allowed in the law making process?
(By the Indian Councils Act of 1861)

101)Which Act given the representation to India, in order to understand the aspirations of Indians?
(Indian Councils Act of 1861)

102)What is the ‘Policy of Assertion’?
In order to understand the aspirations of Indians, representation was given to India. This is called ‘Policy of Assertion’.

103)Which Act is a continuation of the 1861 Act?
(Indian Councils Act of 1892)

104) Why did the Indian Council Act of 1892 increase the representation of Indians? 

Because the Congress organization expressed a critical view towards the British rule.

105) Which Act empowered the British Legislative Assembly to debate the budget?

(Indian Councils Act of 1892)

106) Which Act made a provision to question the government on public issues by serving six days’ notice  in advance?
(Indian Councils Act of 1892)

107)Which act was also called ‘Minto-Morley Reform Act’
(The Indian Councils Act of 1909)     

108)The Indian Council Act of 1909 was also called as the ‘Minto Marley Reforms Act’. Why is it called so?
Because, this Act was framed and implemented by Minto, who was the Viceroy of India and Morley, who was the Secretary of State of India.

109) For what purpose did the British Government use the Indian Council Act of 1909? 

(Used to divide and rule India)

110)Which Act allowed the members for the legislature through election for the first time?
(Indian Councils Act of 1909)

111)Which Act implemented the system of ‘SEPARATE ELECTORATE COLLEGE’ to provide separate representation for Muslims?
(Indian Councils Act of 1909)

112) What is another name for the Government of India Act of 1919?
(Montague-Chelmsford Reform Act)

113)Under which background, was the Government of India Act of 1919 enacted?
Since Indians took active part in World War I, the Government of India Act of 1919 was enacted.

114)Who is Montego?
(Secretary of State of India)

115)Who is Chelmsford?
(Viceroy of British India)

116) In the background of which declaration, did the Government of India Act of 1919 formed?
This act was formed in the background of the announcement made by Montego, who was the Secretary of State, in the British Parliament on 20.8.1917.

117)What was the declaration made by Montego in the proclamation of the Government of India Act of 1919?
Providing more representations to Indians in the matter of administration.

118)Which Act formed the basis of the Constitution of India?
(Government of India Act of 1935)

119) Whose report was instrumental in the formation of the Government of India Act- 1935?
(Report prepared under the leadership of Motilal Nehru in 1928)

120) Based on which act, most of the provisions in the Indian constitution are based? 

Based on the Government of India Act, 1935

121)Whichact allowed the formation of fully responsible government by Indians? 

(Government of India Act 1935)

122) Which act act was applicable both to the Indian principalities and also to the  British India regions?
(Government of India Act 1935)

122)Which Act allowed for the formation of a Federal system of Indian Principalities, British governed regions & dominion states?
(Government of India Act of 1935)

123) An Act, which established Dyarchy at the centre was ____
(Government of India Act, 1935)

124) The Reserve Bank of India was established under this Act ___________
(Government of India Act 1935)

125)Which act abolished he Dyarchy in the provinces, & granted the autonomy?
(Government of India Act 1935)

126) The Federal Court in India was established under the Act of _________
(Government of India Act, 1935)


1)How did the British give uniformity to the administration they built in India?

1. First they used the policy of ‘divide and rule’.
2. Then, they subjugated native states by warand treaties.
3. They tried to keep these territories forever.
4. Later they brought changes in education, revenue, judiciary etc.
5. For this, they did many experiments in administration.
6. By adopting allthese steps, British gave uniformity to the administration.

2) Why was the Regulating Act enacted in India?
1. The company was appointing employees for trade in India.
2. These employees were allowed to do private business.
3. But the employees misused it.
4. The employees became corrupt through illegal wayss.  To prevent this, the company enacted the Regulating Act in India.

3)Why did all the appointments in East India Company was done by the directors till 1853? 1. In 1800 Cornwallis started the Fort William College in Calcutta.

2. Its purpose was to educate those who wanted to join the civil service.
3. But the directors of the East India Company did not support this.
4. Hence, till 1853 the directors of the company made appointments.

4) Indians were given only lower grade jobs in the East India Company. Why?

1.The British suspect the ability of the Indians.
2. Cornwallis said “All the natives of Hindustan are completely corrupt”. Due to these reasons, Indians got only low grade are completely corrupt”. jobs in the company.

5)What were the main aspects of civil services implemented by the British in India?

1. Cornwallis started the Fort William College in Calcutta.
2. His intension was to educate those who wanted to join the civil service.
3. But the director of the company did not support this.
4. Hence, till 1853, the directors of the company made appointments.
5. After 1853 onwards, the Competitive examinations started.
6. But the British doubted the ability of the Indians.
7. Cornwallis said “Every aborigine in Hindustan is corrupt”.
8. Hence Indians could get only low grade jobs.

6)How was the trial conducted in the courts established by Warren Hastings? 

In civil Cases:- 
1) Hindu scriptures for Hindus    
2) Shariyat for Muslims In Criminal Cases:- Islamic Laws for all.

7)Explain the military system of British period.
1. The army was the pillar of British rule.
2. In British army, the Indians were the majority.
3. With the help of army, the entire India was
taken over by the British.
4. All the officers were British.
5. Most of the Indian soldiers were Coolie soldiers.
6. The highest position that Indians got was ‘Subedar’

8) Write a note on ‘Mahalwari system’
1. This was done by R.M. Experimented by Bird and James Thomson.
2. Its implementation varied from province to province in A.
3. Both large and small scale zamindars were part of this system.
4. The company had earmarked more revenue than the production on the farm.
5. Due to this many zamindars lost their land ownership. 6. The poor farmers and laborers who depended on them became destitute.

9) What were the disadvantages of Ryotwari system?
1. In this system the farmer had to pay 50 percent as land tax.
2. This land tax rate was very high.
3. Due to this, the farmers were suffered.
4. The officials used to collect revenue ruthlessly.
5. Hence the farmers had to take loans and pay taxes.
6. Most of the farmers could not pay their debts and sold their land.

10) What were the changes in the educational system of India during William Bentinck’s period?
1. The expansion of British education in India increased.
2. He appointed Macaulay as a legal adviser to his executive council.
3. Macaulay was also made the Chairman of the Committee on Public Education.
4. Macaulay’s report of 1835 changed the Indian education system.
5. English language became the medium of education in India.
6. Thus he created a new educated class which the company needed.

11) Why did the British implement various Acts (Laws) in India?

1) As British rule grew in India, their problems also increased.
2) So administration reforms became necessary for British.
3) These reforms should help the demands of Indians.
4) Hence the British implemented various acts from time to time.

12)Explain the background to the enactment of the Regulating Act 1773.
1. Company officials illegally increased their personal wealth.
2. Corruption became rampant.
3. Edmund Burk called the company’s tax money as ‘Criminal Tax’.
4. Company officer’s wealth may upset the political setup of England.  So, the Regulating Act was enacted to prevent their unlimited wealth.

13)What are the salient points of Pitts India Act?
1. Removed the inconsistencies in the Regulating Act.
2. England’s Government restricted the company’s powers.
3. In place of ‘Board of Directors’, the ‘Board of Control’ was started.
4. There were six commissioners in this.
5. It declared that, “Indians have power only in the name of British Queen, not their own.”
6. The Company’s territories in India became the integral part of British Empire.

14)What were the salient points of the Charter Act of 1813?

1. This licensed the company to stay in India for the next 20 years.
2. Free trade era started in India.
3. A new era of Licence & permit started.
4. Appointment power of Governor General and the Commander-in-Chief were given to Board of Directors.
5. Churches were allowed to enter India officially.
6. Expansion of Christianity & English education started in India.

15)What were the salient points of the Charter the Commander-in-Chief were given to Board of Directors.  Act of 1833?
1. The Governor of Bengal became the ‘Governor General of India’.
2. He was empowered to control and direct all trades.
3. He should give in writing, whenever he had difference of opinion with executive members.
4. Central government of Bengal given the power to decide war and peace.
5. It barren any discrimination on the basis of religion, color and skin colour.
6. Governor General had to appoint legal experts to his executive council.
7. All British companies were allowed to have trade relation with India.

16) What are the salient features of the Indian Councils Act, 1861?
1.Indians were allowed in the law making process.
2.Representation was given to Indians to understand their aspirations.
3.Indians were nominated to Viceroy’s Councilas non-official members.
4. Viceroy was empowered to issue ordinances in case of emergency.

17) What are the features of the Indian Councils Act, 1892?
1. It increased the representation of Indians.
2. The number of additional members in the Central and regional Legislatures was increased.
3. It gave Legislative council the power to debate the budget.
4. With 6 days advance notice, provision was made to question the government.

18) What were the salient features of the Indian Councils (Minto-Morley Reforms) Act, 1909?
1. Central Legislature member’s number was increased from 16 to 60.
2. Provincial council member’s number also increased.
3. For the first time, members for the legislature was allowed through election.
4. ‘Separate Electorate College’ for Muslims was started.
5. The British used this act to divide and rule Indians.

19) How was the Montague-Chelmsford Reform Act (Government of India Act 1919) enacted in India?

1. Indians took active part in the First World War
2. So Montague was in favour of providing more administrational representations to Indians.
3. He was in favour of allowing people participation in the government formation.
4. Viceroy Cheimsford declared many reforms in the British Parliament.  As a result, Montague-Chelmsford Reform Act was enacted in India.

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