class 10 1st Language English Textbook Solutions

THE ELIXIR OF LIFE – Class 10 1st Language English Textbook Solutions

 ENGLISH FIRST LANGUAGE
PROSE: –
THE ELIXIR OF LIFE

C. V. RAMAN  

I. About the Author

C.V.  Raman,  in  full  Sir  Chandrasekhara  Venkata Raman,  (born  November  7,  1888,  Trichinopoly, India—died  November  21,  1970,  Bangalore),  Indian physicist  whose  work  was  influential  in  the  growth  of science  in  India.  He  was  the  recipient  of  the  Nobel Prize  for  Physics  in  1930  for  the  discovery  that  when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that  is  deflected  changes  in  wavelength.  This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect.  Raman  has  been  honoured  with  a  large  number  of honorary  doctorates  and  memberships  of  scientific societies. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society early  in  his  career  (1924),  and  was  knighted  in  1929. Sir  Chandrasekhara  Venkata  Raman  –  died  on November 21, 1970.  

 I. Question and Answers  

1.  Water  the  Elixir  of  Life  Mind  Map  Question.
What is the imaginary elixir of life?
Ans: –
The divine Amrita is the imaginary elixir of life.  

2. What according to the writer is the  real elixir of life?
Ans: – 
According to the writer, water  is the real  elixir of life.  

3.  What  is  the  „wonderful  difference‟  the  writer talks about in the passage?
Ans:  –
  On  one  side,  was  the  visible  sea  of  billowing sand  without  a  speck  of  green  or  a  single  living  thing anywhere  on  it.  On  the  other  side  lay  one  of  the greatest, most fertile and densely populated areas to be found  anywhere  on  the  earth,  teeming  with  life  and vegetation.  This  is  the  ‘wonderful  difference’  that  the writer talks about in the passage.  

4.  Water  the  Elixir  of  Life  Question.  What  is  the „cheering sight‟ mentioned in the paragraph?
Ans: –
The rain-fed tanks that are so common in South India are a cheering sight when they are full.  

5.  What  does  the  writer  compare  water  in  a landscape to?
Ans: –
The writer compares the water in a landscape to the eyes in a human face.  

6.  How  does  the  water  in  rained  tanks  get  its colour?
Ans:
– The water in the rain fed tank carry slit or finely divided  soil  in  suspension.  This  is  the  origin  of  the characteristic colour of the water in the rain fed tanks.  

7. What is the main cause of soil erosion?
Ans: 
–  The  sudden  burst  of  excessively  heavy  rain resulting  in  a  large  run  of  surplus  water  is  the  main cause of soil erosion.  

8. What other factors add to the erosion of precious soil?
Ans: –
The slope of land, removal of natural protective coat  of  vegetation,  the  existence  of  ruts  along  which the  water  can  flow  with  rapidly  gathering  momentum and  the  absence  of  any  checks  of  such  flow  are  the other factors that add to the erosion of precious soil.  

9. How can soil erosion be prevented?
Ans: –
The terracing of  land, construction of  bunds to check  the  flow  of  water,  the  practice  of  contour cultivation  and  the  planting  of  appropriate  types  of vegetation  are  the  measures  that  can  prevent  soil erosion.  

10.  How  does  prevention  of  soil  erosion  serve  a double purpose?
Ans: 
–  The  prevention  of  soil  erosion  would  help  to conserve  and  keep  the  water  where  it  is  wanted,  in other words, on and in the soil. Thus it serves a double purpose.  11. What are the two sources of water? Ans: – The two sources of water are rain and snowfall.  

12. What happens to the rain water?
Ans: –
The rain water flows down into the streams and rivers and ultimately finds its way to the sea.  

13. What is the idea of civilized forest?
Ans:  –
  The  civilized  forests  would,  directly  and indirectly,  prove  a  source  of  untold  wealth  to  the country.  They  would  check  soil  erosion  and  conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste and  would  provide  the  necessary  supplies  of  cheap fuel,  and  thus  render  unnecessary  the  wasteful conversion of farmyard manure into a form of fuel.

14. How can you check soil erosion?
Ans: 
–  The  terracing  of  the  land,  the  construction  of bunds,  the  practice  of  contour  cultivation  and  the planting  of  some  types  of  vegetation  are  the  measures that can be used to check soil erosion.  

15. What is the cheapest means of transport?
Ans: –
The cheapest means of transport is by boats and barges through canals and rivers.  

16.  How  can  you  make  a  difference  in  the countryside?
Ans: –
The availability of electric power would make a tremendous  difference  to  the  life  of  the  countryside and  enable  rural  economy  to  be  improved  in  various directions.  

17.  What  makes  water  one  of  the  most  powerful and wonderful things on earth?
Ans:  – 
Water  played  a  role  of  vast  significance  in shaping the course of the earth’s history and continues to  play  the  leading  role  in  the  drama  of  life  on  the surface of our planet.  

18. How does water help in the  formation of  fertile lands?
Ans:  –
  The  water  has  its  power  to  carry  slit  or  finely divided  soil  in  suspension.  The  great  tracts  of  land formed  by  slit  thus  deposited  is  evident  on  an examination  of  the  soil  in  alluvial  areas.  Thus,  water helps in the formation of fertile lands.  

19.  How  does  soil  erosion  happen  and  what  are  its main causes?
Ans: 
–  The  flow  of  water  under  certain  conditions causes  soil  erosion.  Sudden  bursts  of  excessively heavy  rain  resulting  in  large  run  of  surplus  water  are the principal factors in causing soil erosion.  

20.  What  are  some  measures  that  are  used  to prevent soil erosion?
Ans: –
The terracing of land and construction of bunds to  check  the  flow  of  water,  the  practice  of  contour cultivation  and  the  planting  of  appropriate  types  of vegetation are few measures to check erosion.  

21.  How,  according  to  Sir  C.  V.  Raman,  can rainwater  as  well  as  the  water  of  rivers  be, prevented from going to waste?
Ans:  – 
The  systematic  planting  of  suitable  trees  can prevent rainwater going to waste.  

22. What has man sought in vain?
Ans: –
Man  has  sought  in  vain  for an  imaginary  elixir of life, the divine Amrita.

23. What do the Geologists tell us about the Nile?
Ans: –
Geologists tell us that the entire soil of the Nile valley  is  the  creation  of  the  river  itself,  brought  down as the finest silt in its flood waters, from the highlands of  Abyssinia  and  from  remote  Central  Africa  and  laid down  in  the  trough through  which  the  Nile  flows  into the sea.  

24. Who brought about the wonderful difference on earth?
Ans:  – 
The  wonderful  difference  on  earth  is  brought about by the water.  

25. How was Egypt‟s ancient civilization created?
Ans: 
–  Egypt’s  ancient  civilization  was  created  and sustained  by  the  life-giving  waters  which  come  down year after year with unfailing regularity.  

26.  What  plays  a  vital  role  in  the  South  Indian agriculture?
Ans: –
Rain fed tanks play a vital role in South Indian agriculture.  

27.  Why  does  the  writer  compare  water  in  the landscape to the eyes in the human face?
Ans:  –
  He  makes  this  comparison  because  the  water reflects the mood of the hour by being bright and gay, when the  sun  shines and turns dark and gloomy  when the sky is overcast.  

28. What is one of the most remarkable facts about water?
Ans: –
One of the most remarkable facts about water is its  power  to  carry  silt  or  finely  divided  soil  in suspension.  

29.  What is fundamental for human welfare?
Ans:  – 
The  conservation  and  utilization  of  water  is fundamental for human welfare.  

30.  What  can  be  considered  as  a  source  of  untold wealth to the country?
Ans: 
–  The  systematic  planting  of  suitable  trees  in every  possible  and  even  in  impossible  areas  and  the development  of  civilized  forests  would  directly  or indirectly  prove  a  source  of  untold  wealth  to  the country.  

31. Mention any advantages of civilized forests.
Ans: –
Civilized forests help in preventing soil erosion and  conserve  rainfall  that  otherwise  would  have  gone waste.  

32.  How  does  C.V.  Raman  show  that  water  Is  the real elixir of life?   
Ans: 
–  Raman  tries  to  bring  about  the  importance  of water,  which  has  a  unique  power  of  maintaining animal  and  plant  life.  Water,  the  elixir  of  life,  is  the commonest of  all  liquids.  Without  water the  land  will be  barren  like the deserts in Egypt. On one side  it  is a sea of sand. On the other side  laid one of the greatest, most fertile, densely populated areas the valley of Nile.  It  is  separated  by  the  river  Nile  flowing  down thousands of miles away. The entire soil is the creation of  river  Nile.  Egypt,  in  fact  was  made  by  its  river. Water  is  the  basis  of  all  life.  Every  animal  and  plant contains  water  in  its  body.  Water  is  essential  for  the body,  moisture  in  the  soil  is  equally  important  for the life  and  growth  of  plants  and  trees.  The  conservation and  utilization  of  water  is  fundamental  for  human welfare.  

33.  Water  exists  in  all  plant  and  animal  forms  – Explain.
Ans
: – If there is plenty of water and abundant rainfall, there will be good growth of plants. The population of animals  depending  on  these  plants  will  increase.  On the  other  hand,  if  there  is  a  drought,  there  will  be  a smaller  supply  of  plants.  The  animals  depending  on these  plants  will  decrease  in  population  as  a  result  of the  decrease  in  the  plant  population.  Water  is  the fundamental necessity for both animal and plant forms.  

34.    Life  cannot  exist  on  earth  without  water  – Explain.
Ans: –
Water is the  basis of all  life. Every animal and plant contains water in  its  body. Water is essential  for the  body,  moisture  in  the  soil  is  equally  important  for the  life  and  growth  of  plants  and  trees.  The conservation  and  utilization  of  water  is  fundamental for  human  welfare.  Much  of  Indian  agriculture depends  on  monsoon.  It  is  clear  that  the  adoption  of techniques  preventing  soil  erosion  would  help  to conserve  and  keep  the  water  where  it  is  wanted. Without  water,  nothing  is  possible  on  earth.  The collection  of  rain  water  and  utilizing  them  is  very important.  Vast  areas  of  land  which  at  present  are scrub  jungle  could  be  turned  into  fertile  and prosperous  country  by  courageous  and  well-planned action.  

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