THE ELIXIR OF LIFE
C. V. RAMAN
I. About the Author
C.V. Raman, in full Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, (born November 7, 1888, Trichinopoly, India—died November 21, 1970, Bangalore), Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science in India. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect. Raman has been honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society early in his career (1924), and was knighted in 1929. Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman – died on November 21, 1970.
I. Question and Answers
1. Water the Elixir of Life Mind Map Question.
What is the imaginary elixir of life?
Ans: – The divine Amrita is the imaginary elixir of life.
2. What according to the writer is the real elixir of life?
Ans: – According to the writer, water is the real elixir of life.
3. What is the „wonderful difference‟ the writer talks about in the passage?
Ans: – On one side, was the visible sea of billowing sand without a speck of green or a single living thing anywhere on it. On the other side lay one of the greatest, most fertile and densely populated areas to be found anywhere on the earth, teeming with life and vegetation. This is the ‘wonderful difference’ that the writer talks about in the passage.
4. Water the Elixir of Life Question. What is the „cheering sight‟ mentioned in the paragraph?
Ans: – The rain-fed tanks that are so common in South India are a cheering sight when they are full.
5. What does the writer compare water in a landscape to?
Ans: – The writer compares the water in a landscape to the eyes in a human face.
6. How does the water in rained tanks get its colour?
Ans: – The water in the rain fed tank carry slit or finely divided soil in suspension. This is the origin of the characteristic colour of the water in the rain fed tanks.
7. What is the main cause of soil erosion?
Ans: – The sudden burst of excessively heavy rain resulting in a large run of surplus water is the main cause of soil erosion.
8. What other factors add to the erosion of precious soil?
Ans: – The slope of land, removal of natural protective coat of vegetation, the existence of ruts along which the water can flow with rapidly gathering momentum and the absence of any checks of such flow are the other factors that add to the erosion of precious soil.
9. How can soil erosion be prevented?
Ans: – The terracing of land, construction of bunds to check the flow of water, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of appropriate types of vegetation are the measures that can prevent soil erosion.
10. How does prevention of soil erosion serve a double purpose?
Ans: – The prevention of soil erosion would help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted, in other words, on and in the soil. Thus it serves a double purpose. 11. What are the two sources of water? Ans: – The two sources of water are rain and snowfall.
12. What happens to the rain water?
Ans: – The rain water flows down into the streams and rivers and ultimately finds its way to the sea.
13. What is the idea of civilized forest?
Ans: – The civilized forests would, directly and indirectly, prove a source of untold wealth to the country. They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste and would provide the necessary supplies of cheap fuel, and thus render unnecessary the wasteful conversion of farmyard manure into a form of fuel.
14. How can you check soil erosion?
Ans: – The terracing of the land, the construction of bunds, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of some types of vegetation are the measures that can be used to check soil erosion.
15. What is the cheapest means of transport?
Ans: – The cheapest means of transport is by boats and barges through canals and rivers.
16. How can you make a difference in the countryside?
Ans: – The availability of electric power would make a tremendous difference to the life of the countryside and enable rural economy to be improved in various directions.
17. What makes water one of the most powerful and wonderful things on earth?
Ans: – Water played a role of vast significance in shaping the course of the earth’s history and continues to play the leading role in the drama of life on the surface of our planet.
18. How does water help in the formation of fertile lands?
Ans: – The water has its power to carry slit or finely divided soil in suspension. The great tracts of land formed by slit thus deposited is evident on an examination of the soil in alluvial areas. Thus, water helps in the formation of fertile lands.
19. How does soil erosion happen and what are its main causes?
Ans: – The flow of water under certain conditions causes soil erosion. Sudden bursts of excessively heavy rain resulting in large run of surplus water are the principal factors in causing soil erosion.
20. What are some measures that are used to prevent soil erosion?
Ans: – The terracing of land and construction of bunds to check the flow of water, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of appropriate types of vegetation are few measures to check erosion.
21. How, according to Sir C. V. Raman, can rainwater as well as the water of rivers be, prevented from going to waste?
Ans: – The systematic planting of suitable trees can prevent rainwater going to waste.
22. What has man sought in vain?
Ans: – Man has sought in vain for an imaginary elixir of life, the divine Amrita.
23. What do the Geologists tell us about the Nile?
Ans: – Geologists tell us that the entire soil of the Nile valley is the creation of the river itself, brought down as the finest silt in its flood waters, from the highlands of Abyssinia and from remote Central Africa and laid down in the trough through which the Nile flows into the sea.
24. Who brought about the wonderful difference on earth?
Ans: – The wonderful difference on earth is brought about by the water.
25. How was Egypt‟s ancient civilization created?
Ans: – Egypt’s ancient civilization was created and sustained by the life-giving waters which come down year after year with unfailing regularity.
26. What plays a vital role in the South Indian agriculture?
Ans: – Rain fed tanks play a vital role in South Indian agriculture.
27. Why does the writer compare water in the landscape to the eyes in the human face?
Ans: – He makes this comparison because the water reflects the mood of the hour by being bright and gay, when the sun shines and turns dark and gloomy when the sky is overcast.
28. What is one of the most remarkable facts about water?
Ans: – One of the most remarkable facts about water is its power to carry silt or finely divided soil in suspension.
29. What is fundamental for human welfare?
Ans: – The conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare.
30. What can be considered as a source of untold wealth to the country?
Ans: – The systematic planting of suitable trees in every possible and even in impossible areas and the development of civilized forests would directly or indirectly prove a source of untold wealth to the country.
31. Mention any advantages of civilized forests.
Ans: – Civilized forests help in preventing soil erosion and conserve rainfall that otherwise would have gone waste.
32. How does C.V. Raman show that water Is the real elixir of life?
Ans: – Raman tries to bring about the importance of water, which has a unique power of maintaining animal and plant life. Water, the elixir of life, is the commonest of all liquids. Without water the land will be barren like the deserts in Egypt. On one side it is a sea of sand. On the other side laid one of the greatest, most fertile, densely populated areas the valley of Nile. It is separated by the river Nile flowing down thousands of miles away. The entire soil is the creation of river Nile. Egypt, in fact was made by its river. Water is the basis of all life. Every animal and plant contains water in its body. Water is essential for the body, moisture in the soil is equally important for the life and growth of plants and trees. The conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare.
33. Water exists in all plant and animal forms – Explain.
Ans: – If there is plenty of water and abundant rainfall, there will be good growth of plants. The population of animals depending on these plants will increase. On the other hand, if there is a drought, there will be a smaller supply of plants. The animals depending on these plants will decrease in population as a result of the decrease in the plant population. Water is the fundamental necessity for both animal and plant forms.
34. Life cannot exist on earth without water – Explain.
Ans: – Water is the basis of all life. Every animal and plant contains water in its body. Water is essential for the body, moisture in the soil is equally important for the life and growth of plants and trees. The conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare. Much of Indian agriculture depends on monsoon. It is clear that the adoption of techniques preventing soil erosion would help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted. Without water, nothing is possible on earth. The collection of rain water and utilizing them is very important. Vast areas of land which at present are scrub jungle could be turned into fertile and prosperous country by courageous and well-planned action.