Class 10 Science Textbook Solution

Management of Natural Resources – Class 10 Science Textbook Solution

  Management of Natural Resources

 
Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Extra s with Answers Science Chapter 16

 1. What are natural resources?
Answer:
Natural resources are naturally occurring substances useful to man in their unmodified (natural) forms.
 

2. Define biodiversity,
Answer
: The occurrence of different types of genes and species from all the habitat and ecosystem in a particular place and various part of the earth is called biodiversity.
  
3. Why maintaining a biodiversity is important?
Answer:
Maintaining biodiversity is important because experiments and field studies suggest that a loss of biodiversity may lead to a loss of ecological stability.
 
4. List any two industries based on forest produce.
Answer:
Paper, timber, lac, sports equipments.
  
5. A person lives near a forest. Make a list of four items which he can get from the forest to meet his daily needs.
Answer:
Firewood, timber, thatch, bamboo, fruits, nuts, medicines.
  
6. Name the award given in the memory of Amrita Devi Bishnoi.
Answer:
Amrita Devi Bishnoi award for wildlife conservation.
 
7. Name the prominent ecologist who is responsible for Chipko movement.
Answer:
Shri Sundarlal Bahuguna.
 
8. Give one criticism about large dams.
Answer:
Large dams consume large amount of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits.
 
9. Name the industries which are based on forest products.
Answer:
Timber, paper and sports industries.
 
10. What are biodiversity hotspots?
Answer:
Biodiversity hotspots are regions rich in tiodiversity,
 
11. Give an example of a community for whom conservation of forest and wildlife has been a religious tenet.
Answer:
For the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan, conservation of forest and wildlife has been a religious tenet.
Management of Natural Resources Extra s Short Answer Type
  
1. What are natural resources? State two factors that work against an equitable distribution of these resources.
Answer:
Natural resources are the stocks of nature whether living or non-living, such as air, water, soil, animals and plants which are useful to the mankind.
Two factors that work against an equitable distribution of these resources are:
•    money
•    power.
 
2. How do advantages of exploiting natural resources with short term gains in mind differ from the advantages of managing our resources with a long-term perspective?
Answer:
Former leads to huge immediate profits or selfish gains while latter leads to sustainable approach so that the resource may be last for future generations too.
 
3. What is meant by three types of ‘R’ (3-R’s) to save the environment? Explain with examples how would you follow the 3-R’s in your school to save the environment.
Answer:
The three types of ‘R’ are Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.
The 3-R’s can be followed in the following ways:
•    Switch off the fans and bulbs when not in use,
•    Reuse of paper, polythene bags, etc., .
•    Reduce the wastage of water/paper or any other item.
  
4. Write two advantages of sustainable management of natural resources. Out of the two – reuse and recycle- which is better and why?
Answer:
Advantages:
1.    Provides the resources for the present generation.
2.    Preserves the resources for the future generation as well. Reuse is better than recyling because it does not involve use of energy.
 
5. Prepare a list of five items that you use daily in the school. Identify from the list such items that can be recycled.
Answer:
Paper, rexine bag, blade, pen, plastic box, scale, eraser, compass and dividers (metallic), steel lunch box and steel spoon are used in the school.
Paper, blade, plastic box, eraser, compass, steel lunch box and steel spoon can be recycled.
  
6. “The prejudice against the traditional use of forest areas have no basis.” Explain.
Answer:
The great Himalayan National Park contains alpine meadows within its reserved areas. These meadows were grazed by sheep in summer. But after the formation of national park, this practice was stopped. Due to this, the grass first grows very tall and then falls over preventing fresh growth from below.
  
7. What is meant by wildlife? How is it important for us?
Answer:
Wildlife is naturally occurring plants, animals and their species which are not cultivated domesticated or trained.
Its importance are:
•    Helps in maintaining the ecological balance.
•    Provides great aesthetic value for human beings.
•    Have economical importance also.
 
8. What legislative measures are taken in India to conserve wildlife?
Answer:
In India, several laws and acts have been passed from time to time in order to protect the degrading wildlife. Out of all, the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 has been the most effective. Under this Act, possession, trapping, shooting of wild animals alive or dead; serving their meat for eating in houses, using them as transport, etc., are completely under strict control or prohibited.  
 
9. Mention two ways in which water harvesting can be undertaken.
Answer:
The two ways by which water harvesting can be undertaken are:
1.    Capturing run-off water from roof tops.
2.    Capturing run-off water from local catchments.
 
10. What is the impact of excessive irrigation and intensification of agriculture?
Answer:
It has resulted in environmental degradation and creation of few waste lands. Water logging has ultimately caused development of saline soil.
  
11. Building of big dams gives rise to some problems. List three main problems that may arise. Suggest a solution to any one of these problems.
Answer:
Problems that may arise would be:
1.    Social problems,
2.    Economic problems,
3.    Environmental problems.
Solution to these problems would be adequate rehabilitation, compensation to the displaced persons and afforestation.
 
12. What measures would you take to conserve eletricity in your house?
Answer:

1.    Put off the fans and lights when they are not required.
2.    Maximum use of solar radiation.
3.    Use of solar water heating system during winters.
4.    Use of fluorescent tubes or CFL.
  
13. What is Narmada Bachao Andolan?
Answer:
Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement) is a movement to protest about the height of Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada, thereby criticising large dams for addressing problems.
  
14.
(a) Why do we need to manage our resources carefully?
(b) Why management of natural resources requires a long term perspective?
Answer:

(a) The resources are limited and with a tremendous increase in human population, the demand for resources in increasing at an exponential rate. Therefore, we need to manage them carefully.
(b) Long term perspective is required to meet the needs of the present as well as for the generations to come.
  
15. Why are coal and petroleum categorised as natural resources? Give a reason as to why they should be used judiciously.
Answer:
Coal and petroleum are obtained from nature so they are categorised as natural resources. They should be used judiciously because they are non-renewable resources which cannot be renewed within a short period of time.
  
16. Name any two endangered plant and animal species.
Answer:

Endangered plant species – Nepenthes khasiana (Pitcher plant) and Snow orchid.
Endangered animal species — Indian Wild Ass and Great Indian Rhinoceros.
  
17. Name the river with which the following dams are associated.
(i) Tehri dam
(ii) Sardar Sarovar dam.
Answer:

(i) Tehri dam on the river Ganga.
(ii) Sardar Sarovar dam on the river Narmada.
 
18. Although coal and petroleum are produced by degradation of biomass, yet we need to conserve them. Why?
Answer
: Both the energy sources, coal and petroleum, take millions of years for their formation. As these resources are being utilised at a much faster rate than their formation, they will be exhausted in the near future. Hence, they need to be conserved.
 
19. Name a greenhouse gas produced due to combusion of fossil fuels. Mention its bad effect to the environment.
Answer:
The greenhouse gases produced are CO2 and oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. These cause global warming.
  
20. List two problems that may arise by planting trees of single variety over vast tracts of a forest.
Answer:

1.    Loss of biodiversity.
2.    Varied needs of the local people can not longer be met.
3.    Degradation of soil.
  
21. Why must we conserve our forests? List two factors responsible for causing deforestation.
Answer:
We must conserve forests because of the following reasons:
1.    Forests help in preventing soil erosion.
2.    They protect biodiversity.
3.    They maintain ground water level.
4.    They help in rainfall.
5.    They provide raw materials.
6.    They prevent floods.
Deforestation is caused by:
1.    Exploitation by industries,
2.    increase in population,
3.    urbanisation,
4.    cattle grazing (any two)
 
22. What is water harvesting? How can this technique help in the conservfation of water?
Answer:
Water harvesting is a technique of capturing rain water when it falls and taking measures to keep the water clean.
This water is stored underground that remains unpolluted, it recharges wells and provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area.
  
23. List two advantages associated with water harvesting at the community level.
Answer
: Advantages of water harvesting at community level:
•    Recharges ground water.
•    Mitigates floods and droughts.
•    Brings rivers and wells back to life and makes more water available.
  
24. List any two advantages associated with water stored in the ground.
Answer:
Advantages of water stored in ground:
1.    Recharges the ground water.
2.    Prevents evaporation of water.
3.    Prevents breeding of mosquitoes.
4.    Prevents contamination.
5.    Mitigates flood and drought.
  
25. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment friendly?
Answer:
Certain changes can be incorporated in our daily work at home, to make it more eco friendly:
1.    We should plant different kinds of shady plants, fruit and vegetable bearing plants, etc.
2.    There should be less use of insecticides and pesticides.
3.    Food should be properly stored to avoid its spoilage, thereby preventing the wastage of food.
4.    There should be proper drainage system for the water to pass in the drains.
5.    There should be proper disposal of water.
6.    Dustbins and other waste products should be properly covered and the garbage should not be dumped around the houses.
7.    Proper sanitary and hygiene methods must be adopted.
 
26. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment-friendly?
Answer:

1.    To make our school environment eco-friendly, it is essential to plant different kinds of shady and fruty tres. Different flowering plants should also be planted.
2.    No waste material and used paper, foil, empty packets should be spread all over the school.
3.    Water facility should be in good condition.
4.    Rooms should be proper ventilated.
5.    There should be proper provision for dustbins for the disposal of waste.
6.    There should be big and clean play grounds.
  
27. What can you do as an individual to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?
Answer:
Techniques like:
1.    use of solar cooker and minimum use of cooking gas.
2.    closing all taps when not in use.
3.    switching off electric appliances when not in use.
4.    making minimum use of auto-vehicles, using public transport vehicles.
5.    minimum use of air conditioners and waters.
6.    avoiding wastage of food.
 
28. List five things you have done over the last one week to:
(a) conserve our natural resources.
(b) increase the pressure on our natural resources.
Answer:

(a) Conserve our natural resources
•    Limited use of water
•    Plantation in free areas
•    Irrigation of plants
•    Limited use of petrol/diesel
•    Smokelss fuel utilization.
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources
•    Extra use of water
•    Day and night lighting
•    Unnecessary trafficking by car
•    Burning of polythene and wastes
•    Destroy the plants
 
29. On the basis of the issues raised in the chapter, what changes would you incorporated in your life-style in a move towards a sustainabel use of our resources?
Answer:
On the basis of issues raised in this chapter, we incorporated in our life-style, a move towards limited use of petrol/diesel, water conservation, plantation, use of LPG in home, use of biodegradable products for shopping, etc., for the sustainable resources utilization.
Management of Natural Resources Extra s Long Answer Type
 
1. We saw in this chapter that there are four main shake-holders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the aurthority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
Answer:
Out of the four categories of stakeholders, the local people living around the forest areas should be given the authority to decide the management of forest produce. This is because the traditional methods of exploitation of natural resources employed by the local people ensure that the sustainability of resources in maintained and they remain conserved in sufficient amount to meet the needs of future generations.
Their traditional methods ensure the recovery and regrowth of resources after they have used them, for example in the reserved area of great Himalayan National Park, when nomadic shepherds were allowed to graze their sheep in the alpine meadows during summers, the grass regrew naturally after grazing.
But, without the regular grazing by sheep today in that area, the grass first grows very tall and then falls over their, preventing fresh growth from below. There are also have been some examples of local people working traditionally for conservation of forests like the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan. So, I think nobody can manage the use of forest resources efficiently as the local people.
 
2. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to mangement
(a) forests and wildlife,
(b) water resources and
(c) coal and petroleum?
Or
What do you understand by management of resources? How you can benifit the society through it. Wriote an article on it.
Answer:
Management of Resources: Management and conservation of natural resources means the scientific utilisation of resources. For this, we should remember the 3 Rs’ that can
save the environment, i.e., Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.
The society can be benefited in different ways by the management of following ways:
(a) Forest and wildlife
1.    We should judiciously use the forest products.
2.    Felling of trees for paper, timer, etc., should be controlled.
3.    Killing of wild animals for their skin, etc., should be banned.
4.    Afforestation should be practised.
5.    Management of the forest should be given to local people.
6.    We should try and preserve biodiveersity we have inherited.
(b) Water resources
1.    Leaking taps should be repaired.
2.    Water form industries should not be directly dumped in the river water.
3.    Use of insecticides and pesticides should be minimised, which are washed away with rain and contaminate river water and underground water.
4.    Methods like rain water harvesting, construction of cannal should be promoted. Construction of dams may also prove beneficial.
(c) Coal and petroleum
1.    Use of coal and petroleum as a source of energy should be minimised.
2.    Use of CNG or LPG as fuels in automobiles.
3.    Renewable sources of energy like solar power, hydropower, wind energy, tidal energy, etc., should be used. It is a better to walk over a short distance rather thatn going by car or scooter.
 
3. What is pollution? Ganga Pollution is one of the major present problems. What methods we should adopt to check it? Write an article.
Answer:
Pollution: It is a undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological charac teristics of air, water and soil.
Ganga Pollution: Ganga being the most important river of India, is the most polluted as well. Ganga is being polluted by more than hundred cities and towns in Uttar pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
Garbages, human excreta, immersion of ashes, chemical of industries have resulted in the fish killing in large sections of the river and increased the presence of disease causing microbes like coliform bacteria which made the water of river unfit for consumption, hence is a major problem for today pollution of river Ganga can be controlled by the following methods:
1.    Proper maintenance of water body.
2.    Reduced use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agriculture.
3.    Avoid the disposal of waste into river.
4.    Proper sewage treatment before disposal into river.
  
4. What is Water Conservation? Using it how we can benefit human beings, animals and plants.
Answer:
Water Conservation: It involves storing rainwater is the large structure through dams, tanks and canals, which can hold this water round the year.
Conservation of water is beneficial for living organisms in following ways:
1.    The conserved water can be used to provide moisture for vegetation and agricultural purposes, there by help in biomass production.
2.    It helps to mitigate droughts and floods.
3.    Various water conservation techniques also increase the life of ecosystem and main tain the ecological balance.
 
5. Write short note on:
(i) Water pollution
(ii) Hotspots
(iii) Sewage treatment.
Answer:

(i) Water Pollution: It is the contamination of waterbodies due to the changes in physical, chemical and biological properties of water that can affect the living beings adversely. Due to human activities, ponds, rivers, oceans are getting polluted in several parts of the world.
(ii) Hotspots: Biodiversity hotspots are regions with very high levels of species richness and high degree of endemism and also regions of accelerated habitat loss. Now, there are 34 hotsports all over the world and three hotsphort in India i.e. Western Ghats/Sri Lanka, Indo-Burma and Eastern Himalaya.
(iii) Sewage Treatment: Sewage refers to the municipal waste water generated every day in cities and towns. It contains large amounts of organic matter and microbes, out of which many are pathogenic.
The treatment of waste water is done by the heterotrophic microbes naturally present in the sewage.

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