Class 10 Social Textbook Solutions

INDIA – WATER RESOURCES – Class 10 Social Textbook Solutions



1. Damodar river was called, Sorrow of _______

2. The Sorrow of Bihar is _________
(Kosi river)

3. Biggest irrigation project of Karnataka is ________
(Upper Krishna)

4. Hydroelectric project is constructed at _________ on the river Cauvery.

5. Hirakud project is built across ___________ river.


1. What is irrigation?
The supply of water to agriculture –artificially or manually- from canals, wells and tanks is called “irrigation’.

2. What are the types of irrigation?


3. What is multi-purpose river valley project?
What are its objectives? Multipurpose river valley projects means a SINGLE PROJECT USED FOR MULTIPLE WORKS like irrigation, flood control, hydropower etc.
1. Providing irrigation facility.
2. Generating hydroelectricity.
3. Prevention of floods.
4. For water transportation.
5. Providing water for domestic use and industries.
6. Preventing soil erosion.
7. Developing fisheries.
8. Enhancing forest wealth.

4. Write a short note on Bhakra-Nangal project.
1. It is the highest project in India.
2. It is a joint project of Punjab, Haryana & Rajasthan.
3. Dams are built at Bhakra and Nangal across the Sutlej River.
4. Bhakra Dam is the highest dam in Asia.
5. Its reservoir is called ‘Govinda Sagar’.
6. It has 3,402 kms long canals.
7. It provides irrigation facility to about 14.6 lakh hectares of land.
8. It provides irrigation and hydropower to Delhi & Himachal Pradesh.

5. Name the hydro-electric power projects of Karnataka.

1) Shivanasamudra  
2) Tungabhadra  
3) Jog   
4) Bhadra  
5) Alamatti   
6) Kali.

6. Rain water harvesting is compulsory today. Why?
1. Water is very precious and scarce.
2. Water in India is not equally distributed.
3. Rainy season in India is also short.
4. Even highly rainfall areas suffer water shortage.
5. In summer, the drought became common.
6. Water scarcity in India as a whole is increasing every year. Due to all these reasons, rain harvesting is mandatory today.

7.What is a National Power Grid?
‘National Power Grid’ is a system of transporting electricity from surplus to deficit areas. It transmits electricity even from one state to another.

1) Bhakra Nangal Project    A) Bihar
2) Tungabhadra Project     B) Himachal Pradesh
3) Hirakud Dam         C) Karnataka
4) Kosi project        D) Orissa

(Answers: 1-B, 2-C, 3-A, 4-D)  


1.What are the sources of water on earth?
(Rivers and lakes)

2.What are the sources of groundwater?
(Wells and springs)

3.Why agriculture in India depends on canal, lake well irrigation?
Because, the rainfall in India is uncertain, unreliable and unqual.

4. Most important development in the history of agriculture is ______


5. Of the total water resources available for agriculture in India, a maximum of ________ hectares can be irrigated.
(140 million hectares)

6. The net irrigated area currently developed in India is _____ hectares.
(62.2 million hectares)

7. Which country has the largest irrigated area in the world?

8. Which country has the 2nd largest irrigated area in the world?

9. Most important form of irrigation in India is _______
(well irrigation)

10. Which irrigation provides water to most of the agricultural land in India?
(well irrigation)

11. What is well irrigation?
Supplying ground water digging or drilling well is called well irrigation.

12. _______ plays an important role in well irrigation in India today.
(bore well or bore well irrigation)

13. About _______ percent of the well irrigated area has borewells.

14. About _______ percent of the total irrigated area of the country has borewells.


15. Irrigation suitable for providing irrigation to VAST AGRICULTURAL LAND is ______
(Canal Irrigation)

16. India has about ________ area under canal irrigation.
(16.5 million hectares)

17. Which is the second main form of irrigation in India after well irrigation?
(Canal irrrigation)

18. What are the two types of canal irrigation?
1. Flood canals  
2) Perennial canals

19. What is a flood canal?
Canals dug directly from rivers without any dams are called ‘flood canals’.

20.Why are ‘Flood canal’ called by that name?

How does water flow in flood channels? 
When the river level is high, the excess water flow through the canals.

21.What is a Perennial canal?
Dams are constructed across the rivers. The stored reservoir water is provided for agriculture through canals, is called ‘Perennial canals’.

22. Which Indian states have permanent canal networks?
Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Bihar

22. The system of irrigation practiced since ancient times in India is ______
(tank irrigation)

24. What are tanks?
‘Tanks’ are the construction of small bunds across the streams to collect water.

25. In which states of India, tank irrigation is found?
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh.

26. Which are the states in India where lake irrigation is most prevalent?
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh

27. Independent India’s first river valley project ________
(Damodar River Valley Project)

28. Damodar River Valley Project is a joint project of which two states?
It is a joint project of the states of Bihar and West Bengal.

29. The Damodar River is called as the ‘Sorrow of Bengal’? Why?
The river Damodar was causing large scale damage to life & property in West Bengal. Hence it is called the ‘Sorrow of Bengal’.

30. Why did Damodar River Valley Project started (taken up)?
The project was started to prevent the destructions by Damodar River in West Bengal.

31. The total length of dams in Damodar river valley is _______ km.

(2,495 km)

32. Damodar river valley has provided irrigation facilities to a total area of _____ hectares. 

(4.5 lakh hectares)

33. Where are the dams built in Damodar River Valley Project?
Dams are built in Tilaiyya, Maithan, Konar and Panchet hill.

34. Where are thermal power stations constructed in Damodar River Valley Project?
In Bokaro, Chandrapur and Durgapur.

35. Which states have benefited from the Damodar River Valley Project?
Jharkhand and West Bengal have benefited from Damodar River Valley Project.

36. India’s highest river valley project_______
(Bakranangal Project)

37. Bakra Nangal project is a joint project of which states?
It is a joint project of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan states.

38. For which river, Bakra Nangal project is built?
(to Sutlej River)

39. Which two dams have been built for Bakra Nangal project?

Two dams have been built at Bakra and Nangal.

40. Which is the TALLEST DAM in Asia?
(Bhakra Dam)

41. The height of Bakra Dam is _______ meters.

(226 meters)

42. The Reservoir created by Bakra Nangal dam is called _____
(Govinda Sagar)

43. The leg length of Bakra Nangal project is _______ kms.

(3,402 kms)

44. The Bakra Nangal scheme will provide irrigation facility to about _____ land.
(14.6 lakh hectares)

45. Which states will get irrigation and hydro- electric power from Bakra Nangal project?

(to Delhi and Himachal Pradesh)

46. The main objective of the Kosi scheme is _______
(Flood Control)

47. The ‘Sorrow of Bihar’ was ________
(Kosi river)

48. Kosi project is a joint project of these two countries _____ & _____

(India and Nepal)

49. At which place, a dam is constructed across Kosi river?
On the border between India and Nepal, at a place called ‘Hanuman Nagar’.

50. An area of ______ hectare has been provided with irrigation facility from Kosi project.(8.75 lakh

51. 50% of the electricity generated by the Kosi project is supplied to

52. Hirakud project is built on which river?

(to Mahanadi)

53. ‘Sorrow of Orissa’ _________


54. Longest dam in India is ______
(Hirakud Dam)

55. The length of Hirakud Dam is ________ km.
(4,801 m)

56. _______ hectares of land has been irrigated by Hirakud project.

(2.54 lakh hectares)

57. Which states have got irrigation and hydro-selectricity facility from Hirakud scheme?

 (States of Orissa, Bihar and Chhattisgarh)

58. What is the main objective of Tungabhadra project?
(Irrigation & Hydroelectricity)

59. Tungabhadra project is a joint project of ______ & ________ states.

(Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh)

60. Where and on which river is the dam built in the Tuagabhadra project?

It is built on the Tungabhadra river at Mallapur near Hospet in Bellary district.

61. What is the Tungabhadra Project (Mallapur) reservoir called?

(Pampa Sagar)

62. To how many areas, has Tungabhadra project provided irrigation facility?

(for 5.5 lakh hectares of land)

63. Which two states are benefiting from the Tungabhadra scheme?
(Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh)

64. Nagarjuna Sagar Project was built to _________ river.
(Krishna River)

65. At which place, Nagarjuna Sagar Project dam is constructed?

It is built across the Krishna river near Nandigoda village in Andhra Pradesh.

66. The main objectives of the Nagarjuna Sagar Project are _______ & _______
(Irrigation and Hydroelectricity)

67. Nagarjuna Sagar Yojana has provided irrigation facilities to _____ hectares.

(8.30 lakh hectares)     

68. Which districts of Karnataka are benefiting from the Upper Krishna Project? (Vijaypur, Bagalkot, Raichur, Gulbarga Districts)

69.Objectives of Upper Krishna Project is _______

(Irrigation, Drinking Water & Electricity)

70. Which are the two dams of Upper Krishna Project?
1. Alamatti Dam  
2. Narayanapur Dam

71. Which is the reservoir constructed by Alamatti Dam?

(Lal Bahadur Shasti reservoir)

72. Which is the reservoir constructed by Narayanpura Dam?
(Basava Sagara Reservoir)

73. How many areas being provided irrigation facilities by Upper Krishna Project?
(6.47 lakh hectares of land)

74. The multi-purpose project, which entangled with a lot of controversies _______
(Narmada Valley Project)

75. Why Narmada River Water Disputes Authority was appointed?
Right from its inception, many controversies were aroused. To solve them, Narmada Project Authority was established.

76. Total number of dams across the Narmada Valley Project
(Narmada river) is ___(23)

77. Which are the major dams of Narmada Valley Project?

(Sardara Sarovar, Narmada Sagar and Narmada Upper project)

78. Which states are getting irrigation and electricity benefits from Narmada Valley Project?

(Gujarath, Northern part of Rajasthan, some parts of Maharashtra)

79. Hydro-electric power is the _
____ important source of power in India.

80. It is estimated that India has a hydropower generation capacity of about _________ kilowatts.
(410 billion) (second)

81. What is ‘Rain Water Harvesting’?
Collecting and using rain water is ‘Rain Water Harvesting’.

82. A simple way to solve the water shortage (or even sfor DROUGHT) in the India is ______
(rain harvesting)

83. What is the use of building check dams to prevent the flow of water?

(It will increase the ground water level.)

84. What is the ‘Recharging of ground water level’?  
Increase of ground water level is called as ‘Recharging’.

85. How can we ‘recharge’ the ground water level?  

By building the check dams to prevent the flow of water, we can ‘Recharge’ the ground water level.


1. Why is irrigation essential for Indian agriculture?
1. Irrigation is essential in low rainfall areas.
2. Irrigation is essential where agriculture is predominant.
3. As rainfall in India is uncertain & unequal.  
4. Since India is mainly an agricultural country.

2. Why are different types of irrigation systems practiced in India?OR What are the factors which caused the practice of different types of irrigation systems in India? 

1. Different physical features   
2. Water requirement for crops 
3. Distribution of rainfall   
4. Different agricultural methods 
5. Types of crops grown

3. Well irrigation is the most important irrigation system in India. Why?
1. It is more suitable for low rainfall area.
2. Its construction and maintenance is easy.
3. Very suitable for a country with small farmers like India.
4. It is essential, where there are no lakes or canals.

4. List the major multi-purpose river valley projects in India.

1. Damodar River Valley Project  
2. Bakra Nangal Project
3. Kosi scheme      
4. Hirakud Project
5. Tungabhadra Project     
6. Nagarjuna Sagar Yojana 7. Krishna Upper Bank Project   
8. Narmada Valley Project

5. What is the benefit of National Power Grid? OR Why was the National Power Grid started?
1. In India, all states don’t have adequate power supply.
2. To solve this problem, National Power Grid has started.
3. Now, electricity can be transmitted adequately.
4. Throughout nation, surplus power can be supplied wherever required.

6. What are the two types of rain harvesting?
1) Collecting water at the place of rainfall. (Eg: From roof tops.)
2) Collecting flowing rainwater. (Eg: Building an bunds & collecting water.)

7. What are the different ways of Rain Water Harvesting? OR How can Rain Water be collected?

1. Water falling on the roof of the house can be collected.
2. Digging ponds in agricultural fields.
3. Building check dams.
4. Communities can build bunds and collect water.

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