Class 2nd PUC English Textbook Solutions

EVERYTHING ……… FOREST – Class 2nd PUC English Textbook Solutions

CHAPTER: – 4
TOPIC: – EVERYTHING ……… FOREST
VANDANA SHIVA


SUMMARY  


Chipko Movement

It was a nonviolent response to the large scale deforestation in the Himalaya region. In the 1970s peasant women in the Garhwal, Himalaya had come  out in defense  of the forests. Vandana  Shiva  noticed  a  steady  loss  of  forests  in  this region.  She  decided  to  become  a  volunteer  for  the movement.  
Bio-diversity  –  Navadanya  Farm  /  Navadanya Movement
Chipko  Movement  taught  Vandana  Shiva  about biodiversity.  She  realized  the  importance  of  biodiversity based  living  economies.  She  started  Navadanya,  the movement for biodiversity conservation and organic farm in 1987.   Vandana  Shiva  has  worked  with  farmers  to  set  up more  than  100  community  seed  banks  across  India.  They have  saved  more  than  3000  varieties.  This  is  a  transition from monocultures to bio-diverse ecological systems. To demonstrate her experimentation, she started Navadanya Farm  in  1994  in  the  Doon  Valley  in  the  lower  elevation Himalayan  region  of  Uttarakhand  Province.  They  are  now able  to  conserve  and  grow  630  varieties  of  rice,  150 varieties of wheat and hundreds of other species. Thus they practice  and  promote  a  biodiversity  intensive  form  of farming that produces more food and nutrition per acre.  
Rights of Nature / Separatism – eco-apartheid
Vandana  Shiva  interestingly  talks  about  how  the  UN General Assembly organized a conference on harmony with nature  as  part  of  Earth  Day  celebrations  inspired  by  the constitution  of  Ecuador  and  the  Universal  Declaration  of the  Rights  of  Mother  Earth  initiated  by  Bolivia.  This emphasizes  the  significance  attached  to  the  mother  earth much  against  human  domination  over  nature.  She  upholds the  view  that  human  beings  are  an  inseparable  part  of nature. So, she feels that today, we do not need an apartheid situation  which  once  divided  people  based  on  colour.  Our challenge  now  is  to  overcome  eco-apartheid  based  on separateness of humans from nature.  
The  Dead  Earth  /  Industrial  Revolution  –  Capitalism  – Exploitation  This  separateness  paved  way  to  industrial  revolution replacing  vibrant  earth  and  turning  it  into  a  dead  matter. This has further led to Capitalism and Consumerism which exploit  natural  resources  indiscriminately.  Thus  Terra Madre  (Mother  Earth)  was  replaced  by  Terra  Nullius  (the empty land / the dead earth).  
The Earth University / Earth Democracy The  Earth  University  located  at  Navadanya  biodiversity farm  is  an  inspiration  from  Rabindranath  Tagore  which teaches Earth Democracy; to recognize, protect and respect the  rights  of  other  species.  It  is  a  shift  from anthropocentricism  (human  centric)  to  ecocentrism  (nature centric).
Forest and Freedom / Enoughness – principles of equity
The  last  section  of  this  essay  is  adapted  from  “Forest  and Freedom” written by Vandana Shiva published in the May /  June  2011  edition  of  “Resurgence”.  This  highlights Tagore‟s view of forest as the source of beauty and joy of art  and  aesthetics  of  harmony  and  perfection.  The  forest teaches  us  union,  compassion  and  Enoughness.  It  teaches us  enjoyment  through  renunciation  and  not  through  greed of possession. Thus Vandana Shiva concludes that it is this forest that can show us the way beyond this conflict.

POINTS TO REMEMBER

 
1. Vandana Shiva is a prominent environmental activist. In these  passages,  she  writes  about  how  she  came  to  realize about  our  environment.  She  joined  the  „Chipko Movement‟  to  protest  against  large  scale  deforestation  in the Himalayanregion.
2.  Peasant  women  from  the  Himalayan  region  were  also involved  in deforestation on the  mountains that had  led  to landslides  and  floods,  water  and  food  scarcity  and  also fire-wood scarcity.
3. They hugged trees as loggers try to cut them.
4. Vandana Shiva gother Ph.D. in 1973. Then she decided to join Chipko Movement and did Padayatras to document deforestation and to promote Chipko Movement.
5. During her involvement with Chipko, she learned about bio-diversity  and  economy  dependent  on  it,  From theexperience  gained  she  started  ‘Navadanya  Farm‟  for demos  and  training.  630varieties  of  rice,  150  varieties  of wheat andhundreds of other species are conserved here.
6.  Ecuador adopted’right to  nature‟ in  its constitution  and in  April  21  U.N  GeneralAssembly  organized  „harmony with nature‟ as a part of earth day celebrations.
7.  In  his  report  „Harmony  with  nature‟  UN  General Secretary says that by destroying nature, we have failed to recognize that humans are inseparable from  nature and by destroying nature, we destroy ourselves.  
8.  People  from  all  over  the  world  agitated  against Apartheid and stopped its practice.
9.  The  roots  of  exploitation  of  the  earth  is  based  in  this idea of separation.
10. The earth’s resources were made into raw materials and waste generated, pollute the earth.
11.  Nature  is  the  best  teacher  it  teaches  us  to  share  and save,  the  earth  university  „Navadhanya’  trains  people aboutecology.
12.  India‟s  national  poet  Rabindranath  Tagore  started Shantiniketan  to  impart  learning  in  natural  surroundings. In  his  essay  “Tapovan’  he  explains  the  importance  of nature in a human’s life.
13. Forests teach us to live in harmony with nature.

I.    Answer  the  following questions  in  a word, a  phrase or a sentence each: –

1.    How  did  Vandana  Shiva  develop  an  interest  in ecology?

 Ans: – Vandana Shiva learnt about ecology and ecosystems from the forests of the Himalayas.

2. What is „Chipko movement‟? Or What  is  „Chipko  Movement‟  according  to  Vandana Shiva?                              
                                                                                        
Ans: – A nonviolent response to large scale deforestation.  

2.    What were the ill effects of logging of wood?

Ans: – Landslides, floods, scarcity of water, fodder and fuel.  

3.    What is a rhododendron?
Ans:  –  An  evergreen  shrub  with  leathery  leaves  and  bell shaped flowers.  

4.    How did Vandana Shiva spend her vacation?
Ans: –  Vandana Shiva spent  her vacation  doing pad  yatras, documenting  the  deforestation  and  work  ofthe  forest activists and spreading the message of Chipko.  

5.    Which village did Bachni Devi belong to?
Ans: – Village ofAdwani.  

6.    What  was  the  real  value  of  forests,  according  to  the women of the Himalayas?
Ans: – Profit, resin and timber  

7.    What  do the  forests bear, according to the women of the Himalayas?
Ans: – Soil, waterand pure air.  

9.What  is  the  movement  for  bio  diversity  conservation and organic farming?
Ans: – Navadanya.  

10.Which  country  recognized  the  “Rightsof  Nature”  in its constitution?

Ans: – Ecuador.  

11.Name  the  country  that  universally  declared  the Rights of Mother Earth.
Ans: – Bolivia.  

12.Name  the  South  African  environmentalist  who pointed out that apartheid means „separateness.‟ Ans: – Cormac Cullinan.  

13.Terra Nullius means ________.
Ans: – The empty land.  

14.___________  and  _____________  replaced  a  vibrant Earth.

Ans: – Raw materials and dead matter.

15.What does Terra Madre mean?

Ans: – Mother Earth.  

16.Who is known as the „Father of modern science‟?

Ans: – Francis Bacon  

17.Earth  democracy  is  a  shift  from  anthropocentrism to………………
Ans: – Eco – centrism  

18.Who were the participantsof the Earth University?

Ans: – Farmers, school children and people from across the world.  

19. Name the courses offered by the Earth University.

Ans:  –  TheA-Z  of  Organic  farming  and  Gandhi  and Globalization.  

20.Name the essay written by Tagore.

Ans: – Tapovan.  

21.Diversity without unity becomes the source of conflict and ______
_
Ans: – Contest.  

22.According  to  Tagore,  forest  teaches  us  union  and ___________
Ans: – Compassion.  

23.  Who  is  the  author  of  „Tapovan‟  –  as  mentioned  in „Everything I need to know I learned in the forest‟?                                                                     
Ans: – Rabindranath Tagore  

24.  Where  is  the  Earth  University  mentioned  by Vandana Shiva located?        
       
Ans: – At Navadanya Farm / Doon Valley   

25. What  does the Earth University reach;  according to Vandana Shiva?            
   
Ans: – Earth Democracy.  

26.  Name  the  movement  which  took  place  in  the Himalayan region to save trees.
      
Ans: – Chipko Movement.  

27.  Where  was  „Navadanya  Farm‟  started  by  Vandana Shiva?
                                                            
Ans: – In Doon Valley, Uttarakhand  

II.    Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each: 
III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words:   

1.    How did women led by Bachini Devi put up resistance to felling of trees? Do you think it was effective?
Ans:  –  Bachini  Devi,  
along  with  other  women  led  a resistance  against  her  own  husband,  who  was  a  forest contractor.  To  show  that  these  men  were  blind  to  the destruction  of  nature,  they  held  lighted  lanterns  in  broad daylight  to  open  their  eyes  to  make  them  realize  that  in destroying  forests  they  were  destroying  themselves.  Yes, they  were  successful  in  agitation  and  made  the  authorities realize their folly.  

2.    Why  is  it  important  to  promote  the  biodiversity intensive farming. How did the author achieve it?

Ans: – The author Vandana Shiva learnt about Biodiversity in  the  Himalayan  forests.  She  used  this  knowledge  to protect biodiversity of farms. She started saving seeds.  To promote biodiversity she started the „Navadhanya Farm‟ in 1994 at Doon Valley Uttarakhand.  Through  their  efforts  they  have  conserved  630  varieties  of rice, 150 varieties of wheat and hundreds of other species.  She  also  promoted  organic  farming  in  1987.  At  the  farm, they  trained  farmers  and  also  used  for  demonstration  and cultivation of more than 3000 varieties of rice.  Biodiversity  has  helped  in  growing  more  quantity  and nutritious  food.  It  has  helped  in  achieving  food  security. Because of biodiversity hunger, starvation and malnutrition have been reduced and as a result human has has improved and many diseases caused by malnutrition are reduced.  

3.    What  does  the  idea  of  the  Earth  University  convey? How is it different from other Universities?
Or Write a note on Earth University mentioned in Vandana Shiva‟s essay. 
                                                 Ans:  –  The  earth  University,  Navadhanya  conveys  a democracy,  which  is  the  freedom  for  all  species  to  evolve with the  web  of  life, and the freedom and responsibility  of humans,  as  members  of  the  earth  family,  to  recognize, protect  and  respect  the  rights  of  their  species. Since we all depend on the earth, earth democracy promotes human right to food and water. The Earth University stands apart from other universities because teaching does not take place in a concrete building but in the natural surroundings of  the  „Navadhanya‟  where  participants  work  with  seeds, soil and the web of life. The  students  are  farmers,  school  children  and  other interested people. The two most popular courses are „A to Z of  organic  farming  and  Argo-Ecology‟  and  „Gandhi  and Globalization‟.  

4.    “Conservation of diversity is crucial for substance of both nature and human society.” Discuss. 
  Or „Conservation  of  biodiversity  sustains  both  nature  and culture‟. Explain with reference to „Everything I need to know I learned in the forest‟  Or Describe  the  concept  of  Earth  University  by  Vandana Shiva
.
Ans: – “Conservation of diversity “is the answer to the food and  nutrition  crisis”.  Biodiversity  conservation  is  very important to sustain our growing population. By conserving diversity,  we  can  ensure  the  continuous  supply  of  basic needs  of  living  beings  like  food,  water,  shelter  etc.  If  it  is not  conserved,  a  chain  reaction  of  natural  calamities  will occur.  If  we  go  on  destroying  our  forest,  soil  erosion  will have  happened  and  it  can  cause  great  damage  to  humans, wild life and their properties. Lack  of  forest  cover  will  lead  wild  animals  to  the  cities  in search  of food and will lead to  man-animal conflict. Forest cover  is  important  for  causing  range.  rains  bring  water  to nurture forest and living beings. With enough water we can grow enough food for our growing population.  Organic  farming  is  a  method  to  conserve  biodiversity  and for organic farming we need natural manure like cow dung, decomposed  vegetation  etc.  So  to  get  these  we  have  to protect our cattle and the forests.

Organic  farming  promotes  and  increases  in  the  number  of livestock and free manure. By organic farming there will be less  wastage  of  raw  materials,  less  pollution  and  more nutritious food can be grown and this will increase the  health of human beings and conserve our natural resources. It  will  promote  cooperation  and  peaceful  coexistence  of human beings and all other creatures.  

5.    In  the  light  of  this  essay  how  does  one  synthesize wisdom of the past with the modern knowledge system
?
Ans: – Science and Technology and agricultural knowledge of  ancient  and  modern  times  are  being  effectively  used  to conserve  biodiversity.  And  biodiversity  provides  enough foods and fossils for our teeming population. To  conserve  nature,  every  nation  of  this  world  has  to  start cooperating with each other and should take drastic steps to prevent  curbing  and  destruction  of  natural  resources  like forests, wild animals and human health.  

6.    What ideas of Tagore inspired the author to start the Earth University

Ans:  –  Tagore  says  that  India’s  best  ideas  have  come  from the  forests  where  man  was  in  communion  with  trees  and rivers  and  lakes,  away  from  the  crowds.  The  peace  of  the forest  has  helped  the  intellectual  evolution  of  man  and  the culture of the forest has fueled the culture of Indian society. The  culture  that  has  arisen  from  the  forest  has  been influenced  by  the  diverse  processes  of  renewal  of  life, which are always at play in the forest, varying from species to  species,  from  season  to  season,  in  sight  and  sound  and smell.  The  unifying  principle  of  life  in  diversity,  of democratic  pluralism,  thus  became  the  principle  of  Indian civilization.  

7.    Write  a  note  on  Vandana  Shiva’s  involvement  in  the Chipko movement.                                        
Ans:  –  Vandana  Shiva‟s  involvement  in  the  contemporary ecology movement began with the Chipko movement which was  a  non-violent  response  to  the  large-scale  deforestation that was taking place in the Himalayan region in the 1970s. During  this  period,  the  peasant  women  from  the  Garhwal Himalaya,  having  realized  that  the  forests  were  the  real source of springs and streams, fodder and fuel, declared that they would hug the trees, and the loggers would have to kill them before cutting the trees. In 1973, when Vandana Shiva went to the Himalaya to visit her favourite forests and swim in  her  favourite  stream,  the  forests  were  not  there  and  the stream had become a trickle. It was at this moment that she decided  to  become  a  volunteer  for.  the  Chipko  movement. She  spent  every  vacation  doing  Padayatras,  documenting the  deforestation,  the  work  of  the  forest  activists  and spreading the message of Chipko.  

8.    “The conservation of bio-diversity is the answer to the food and nutrition crisis.” Do you agree? 
 
Ans:  –  Yes.  The  conservation  ofbio-diversity  is  the  right step to help the people overcome the nutrition crisis because bio-diversity  works  on  the  paradigm  of  Earth  Democracy and  democratic  pluralismwherein  there  is  freedom  for  all species to evolve within the web of life. As members of the Earth family, it is the freedom and responsibility of humans to recognize, protect and respect the rights of other species. This  way  we  bring  into  play  the  principle  of  equity.  No species in such an ecosystem appropriates the share of  another  species  and  every  species  sustains  itselfin  co- operation with others. Secondly,  bio-  diversity  sustains  democratic  pluralism because  there  are  diverse  processes  of  renewal  of  life always  at  play  in  natural  eco-systems  and  they  vary  from species to species and from season to season in sight, sound and  smell.  All  the  species  live  in  perfect  harmony.  Thus bio-diversity  paves  the  way  for  enrichment  of  the  web  of life leading to abundance.  

9.    Write  a  brief  not  on  „Chipko  Movement‟  which  took place in the Himalayan region?                   
Ans:  –  Chipko  Movement  is  a  non-violent  movement against  cutting  down  trees  in  the  Himalayan  region. Vandana  Shiva  was  inspired  by  the  songs  about  forests taught  by  her  mother  in  her  childhood.  She  became  a Chipko  volunteer  and  took  part  in  a  ‘Padayatras’  to  make people  understand  the  importance  of  trees  and  forests.  She was happy when the village women hugged the trees to stop the  loggers  from  cutting  them.  She  wrote  articles  on ecology  in  newspapers  and  magazines  to  spread  the message  of  Chipko  movement.  Indiscriminate  cutting  of trees  led to  landslides, floods and scarcity  of  water, fodder and  fuel.  Vandana  Shiva  wanted  people  to  understand  the value  of  forests  and  stop-cutting  trees.  Many  women  from the  Himalayan  villages  joined  her  movement  and  became activists of the Chipko Movement.  

10.    What  role  does  the  forest  play  in  Vandana  Shiva’s life? Explain.        
Ans: – Vandana Shiva says that she learned  her first lesson in  ecology  and  eco-system  in  the  Himalayan  forests  which she  later  put  to  practice  in  her  farms.  Her  ideas  about  bio- diversity  and  bio  diversity  based  living  economies prompted  her  to  begin  the  Navadanya  movement  for biodiversity  conservation  and  organic  farming  which  she started  in  1987.  Later,  in  1994,  she  set  up  the  Navadanya farm  in  the  Doon  Valley  where  she  claims  to  have conserved and grown 630  varieties  of rice, 150 varieties  of wheat  and  hundreds  of  other  species.  Based  on  these practices she tells the reader that the forests teach us union and  compassion,  principle  of  equity,  and  how  to  enjoy  the gifts  of  nature  without  exploitation  and  accumulation  and mutual co-operation.  

KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER:  

•  Vandana  Shiva  started  her  ecological  journey  in theforests of the Himalayas.
•  She joined the Chipko Movement.
•  She  liked  Bachini  Devi  who  opposed  her  husband to cut the trees.
•  She used the methods of biodiversity on her farms.
•  She started Navadanya Farm.
•  The  conservation  of  biodiversity  became  the answer tothe food and nutrition crisis.
•  She  started  the  Earth  University  to  teach  Earth Democracy.
•  Earth  Democracy  is  a  shift  from anthropocentrism toecocentrism.
•  Rabindranath Tagore writes an essay “Tapovan”.
•  Indian culture is with trees, rivers and lakes.
•  The  forest  is  the  source  of  beauty  and  joy,  of harmony and perfection.
•  The  end  of  consumerism  and  accumulation  is  the beginning of the joy of living  

RECAPITULATION:  

  Ecological journey from the forests of Himalaya
  Father-Forest conservator. Mother-a farmer
  Chipko movement-deforestation
  Logging-scarcity  of  water,  fodder  and  fuel/women affected   Bachni Devi‟s fight
  Bio-diversity-intensive and organic farming
  Navadanya Farm 1994
  Rights of Nature- Ecuador, Bolivia and UN
  Earth- a dead matter-industrial revolution
  Earth University-Earth Democracy-freedom for species
  Tagore‟s  ideals-trees,  rivers  and  lakes  source  of knowledge/thoughts
  Nature- source of beauty and  joy
  Consumerism and  accumulation

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