10th Science Notes





Text Book Question and Answers

I. Answer the following

1. What are functional groups? Give four examples

An atom or a group of atoms that determines the characteristic properties of a class of organic compounds is called functional group.


-OH Alcohols

-COOH Carboxylic acids

-CHO Aldehydes

-NH2 Amines

2. Write general formulae of organic compounds that you studied.


An alkyl/ aryl radical (R)

Functional group (X)

3. Draw the structural of a)glycerol b)salicylic acid


4. Ethanol cannot be called poly functional compound, why?

The molecular formula of ethanol is C2H5OH. There is only one functional group in this molecule. Therefore, ethanol is not a poly functional compound

5. Though sodium hydroxide has hydroxyl group, it cannot be called sodium alcohol.

In sodium hydroxide -OH group is a negative radical which is linked to sodium atom by an ionic bond. This yields sodium hydroxide which is an alkali. Secondly, sodium, hydroxide is not an organic compound. Therefore, NaOH cannot be considered an alcohol.

6. Explain the naming criteria of organic compounds with an example.

Naming of organic compound CH3CH2CH2-OH

1. it contain 3 carbon and carbon, carbon contain single bond. Three carbon root name = propane.

2. the organic compound contain alcoholic functional group. Suffix is ol

3. Drop the “e” ending and add “ol” the ending for alcohol

Thus the name = propane + ol = propanol

7. Why glycine is considered as poly functional compound?

Glycine (H2N-CH2-COOH) is a poly functional compound because it contains one amino group (-NH2) and one carboxylic group (-COOH)

II. Fill in the blanks with the suitable answers

1. Functional group present in methanamine is amine group(-NH2)

2. Site of chemical reaction in an organic compound is Functional Group

3. In R-X less reactive part is R

Additional Question and Answers

1. What are polyfunctional compound? Give examples.

Organic compounds having more than one functional group are called polyfunctional compounds.

Eg: Glycine(H2N-CH2-COOH), Salicylic Acid(OH-C6H4-COOH)

2. What ldoes IUPAC represent?

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

3. Identify the functional groups in the following compounds

CH3OH – Functional group OH

CH3COOH – Functional group COOH

4. Explain the term functional group with a suitable example

Functional groups are the sites where reactions occur in organic molecules.

Eg: CH3OH methyl alcohol. The functional group is OH group.

8. Mention the two parts present in each class of organic compounds.

Each class of organic compounds is made up of two parts.

a. An alkyl/ aryl radical (R)

b. Functional group (X)

9. What is the active part of an organic compound called?

The functional or active part of an organic compound is called functional group.

10. What is the general notation used to represent an organic compound?

The general notation for representing an organic compound is written as R-X. Here R is the hydrocarbon part and X is the functional group.

11. Write the general formula of Alcohols, Carboxylic acids, Aldehydes and Amines?

Alcohols – R-OH

Carboxylic acids – R-COOH

Aldehydes – R-CHO

Amines – R-NH2

12. Write the IUPAC Nomenclature of class of organic Compounds


13. In a molecule of bromoethane [CH3-CH2-Br] which is the functional part and which is the non-functional part?


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