Class 2nd PUC English Textbook Solutions

A SUNNY MORNING – Class 2nd PUC English Textbook Solutions

 CHAPTER: – 5
TOPIC: – A SUNNY MORNING
SERAFIN & JOAQUIN ALVAREZ QUINTER  


STORY ANALYSIS


Meeting of Don Gonzalo and Dona Laura / Background  

The  play  opens  in  the  setting  of  a  park  where  Dona  Laura enters  the  park  with  the  help  of  her  maid,  Petra  and  finds place to sit on a bench to feed the birds  with breadcrumbs. Meanwhile,  Don  Gonzalo  also  enters  the  park  with  his servant,  Juanito  and  hesitates  to  sit  on  other  side  of  the bench,  which  was  already  occupied  by  Dona  Laura.  He even  curses  the  priests  for  being  occupied  his  bench  on which  he  usually  sits  in  every  sunny  morning.  He  looks negatively  at  every  aspect  of  his  life  and  goes  on complaining  whereas Laura expresses  her  grievances  when others  disturb  her. In  the  beginning  both  of  them  are reluctant  at  each  other  but  soon  they  tried  to  understand each other in the progress of their conversation.  
Flashback / The past
Sharing  a  pinch  of  snuff  between  them  softens  their  tone into  friendliness.  Soon  their  conversation  stumbles  upon reading books. This paves the way for the next level of their story.  Dona Laura reads a poem from a book given by Don Gonzalo, which surprises them, that they were the lovers of several  decades  before  and  now  talking  about  themselves. However,  they  do  not  want  to  disclose  their  true  identities since they have lost seen each other in early youth. So, they spin  fictitious  stories  where  Laura  identifies  herself  as  a friend  of  „The  Silver  Maiden‟  Laura  Llorente  while  Don Gonzalo identifies himself as the cousin of Don Gonzalo.  
Their Love story – Dona Laura‟s version
Laura  Llorente  lived  at  Maricela  in  Valencia.  She  was known  as  „The  Silver  Maiden‟  in  her  locality.  Gonzalo would  pass  by  on  his  horseback  every  morning  under Laura‟s house window and would toss a bouquet of flowers up  to  her  balcony.  In  the  afternoon,  while  he  would  return by  the  same  path  and  catch  a  bouquet  of  flowers  that  she would  toss  him  down.  When  Laura‟s  parents  wanted  to marry  her  to  a  merchant  a  duel  was  followed  and  the merchant  was  badly  wounded  by  Gonzalo.  Don  Gonzalo fled  away  fearing  of  the  consequences.  Laura  waited  for days and  months and  not hearing from  him  for a long time she  left  her  home  one  afternoon  and  went  to  the  beach. While  she  was  engrossed  in  Don  Gonzalo‟s  thoughts  she was washed away by the waves.  
Don Gonzalo‟s version
Don Gonzalo also tried to spin his version  of a story about his  supposed  cousin.  Gonzalo  also  loved  Laura  intensely. After  injuring  the  merchant  seriously,  fearing  the consequences,  he  took  refuge  in  Seville  and  Madrid.  He wrote  many  letters  to  her  but  her  parents  seized  them.  As there was no reply, in despair, he joined the army and went to  Africa  where  he  died  in  one  of  the  trenches  holding  the flag of Spain and muttering the name of his love, Laura.    

Conclusion / Reality In  reality,  
after  two  years  of  their  separation,  Laura married  someone  and  settled  down  in  her  life.  Similarly, Gonzalo disappointed over his lost love, three months later he  too  married  a  ballet  dancer  and  settled  down  in  Paris. Though,  they  were  separated,  in  their  hearts  the  yearning for  the  romantic  love  continued.  When  they  met  in  the park after nearly 50 years both of them were able to recall their intense romantic affair. Although they came to know about each  other in reality, they  did  not want to reveal, as they  had  lost  their  charming  youth.  Thus  the  play  “A Sunny Morning entertains the audience.  

SUMMARY  

The play “A Sunny Morning” is a comedy of Madrid in one act,  by  Serafin  and  Joaquin  Alvarez  Quintero. On  a  sunny autumn  morning  in  a  quiet  corner  of  a  park  in Madrid, Dona Laura, a graceful, white-haired lady of about seventy, is  feeding  pigeons  in  the  park.  Don  Gonzalo,  a  gentleman of  seventy,  gouty  and  impatient  enters.  Their servants Petra, Dona Laura’s maid and Juanito come and go nearby.  The  conversation between the two seventy  year olds begin sarcastically,  with  each  accusing  the  other  of  encroaching on  their  private  space.  Don  Gonzalo  complains  the  priests have taken his bench, and says Dona Laura is a, “Senile old lady!  She  ought  to  be  at  home  knitting  and  counting  her beads.” She finds him “an ill-natured old man!” He resigns himself to “sit on the bench with the old lady.”  

A pinch of snuff  helps to clear their heads, and they find something  in  common  with  alternating  sneezes  of  three times  each.  Dona  Laura  confides  to  the  audience,  “the snuff  has  made  peace  between  us.” They  begin  to  banter back  and  forth  in  a  friendly  manner.  Then  Don  Gonzalo reads  out  loud  from  a  book  of  poems.  They  begin  to discuss Valencia and  without  acknowledging  it  to  each other,  realize  he  and  she  are  two  lost  lovers.  He  was  a native of Faencia and she spent several seasons at a nearby villa. He remembers her as “The Silver Maiden,” and they discuss  a  duel  involving  his  cousin.  When  the  play  ends, they  agree  to  meet  at  the  park  again,  still  not acknowledging what they both know to be true.”

I.    Answer  the  following questions  in  a word, a  phrase or a sentence each: –

1.  How  is  Dona  Laura  able  to  read  the  poem  without her glasses?
i.She has a keen eyesight       
ii.She struggles but manages to read the poem
ii.She knows every word by heart     
iv.She  is  merely  repeating  what  Gonzalo  had  earlier read

Ans. She knows every word by heart    

2. Why does Don Gonzalo sit next to Dona Laura in the park?
i.He prefers to sit with her       
ii.His legs are aching
iii.He did not get any other bench to sit     
iv.He owned the bench

Ans. iii. He did not get any other bench to sit.  

3.  Dona  Laura  does  not  reveal  herself  to  Gonzalo because _________
i.She no longer loves him       
ii.Her appearance has changed a lot
iii.He looks grotesque         
iv.None of these

Ans. ii. Her appearance has changed a lot   

4.  Don  Gonzalo  and  Dona  Laura  had  to  part  ways because of __________
i.His marriage to another lady       
ii.Her appearance has changed a lot i
ii.Her father‟s death         
iv.Her fickle heart

Ans. ii. Her appearance has changed a lot  

5. How does the play end?
i.Gonzalo and Laura separate forever   
ii.Gonzalo and Laura fail to recognize each other
iii.Gonzalo and Laura promise to meet again  
iv.None of the above

Ans. iii. Gonzalo and Laura promise to meet again    

6. Who occupied Gonzalo‟s usual bench?   
Ans. Three Priests occupied Gonzalo‟s usual bench.  

7.  Whose  name,  according  to  Gonzalo,  was  his  cousin whispering at the time of his death?           
Ans. Laura‟s name  

8. Name the villa Laura Llorente lived in.   

Ans. Maricela  

9.  What  did  Dona  Laura  carry  every  day  to  feed  the pigeons in „A Sunny Moring‟?           
Ans. Bread Crumbs.  

10. Who is the caretaker of Don Gonzalo in  the play „A Sunny Morning‟?    
           
Ans. Juanito  

11. How did Laura feel coming to the park?     
Ans. Tired but glad  

12.  Who  accompanied  Dona  Laura  or  Who  is  Dona Laura‟s Maid?
Ans. Petra  

13.  What  quality  of  the  birds  does  Dona  Laura appreciate?       
 
Ans. Gratefulness and paying attention

 14. How did Gonzalo annoy Dona Laura?   
Ans.Scaring the birds away.  

15. What does Don Gonzalo expect a woman like Dona Laura to do sitting at home?     

  Ans.Knitting and counting beads.  

16. How did Don Gonzalo greet Dona Laura

 Ans.By touching his hat.

 17. What did Don Gonzalo  use to brush the  dust  from his shoes?          
 Ans.His Handkerchief

 
18.  What  establishes  peace  between  Dona  Laura  and Don Gonzalo?      
Ans.A Pinch of snuff  

19. Why did Gonzalo go to Aravaca ?   

Ans.To kill time and to hunt
 
20. Who was the gallant horseman in the play?
Or 
Who  is  the  „Gallant  Lover‟  in  the  play  „A  Sunny Morning‟?                                              
 Ans.Don Gonzalo  

21. What was Laura Llorente known in her locality?
Ans.The Silver Maiden

II. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of 80 – 100 words each:  

III. Answer the following questions in about 200 words:  

1.    Why is Don Gonzalo ill-tempered at the beginning of the play?
Ans.Don Gonzalo is found to be in an ill-tempered state at his  first  appearance  itself.  He  is  so  irritated  because  he finds  that  not  even  a  single  bench  is  vacant  in  the  park. Moreover, the one  on  which  he used to sit  is  occupied by three priests.

2.    Would  you  agree  that  the  snuff  unites  Gonzalo  and Laura here? Give reasons for your answer.

Ans.Gonzalo shares the same bench on which Dona Laura the  old  lady  is  sitting.  Both  of  them  annoy  each  other  at first.  Laura  is  angry  because  Gonzalo  scared  her  pigeons. Gonzalo  feels  irritated  as  Laura  is  annoying  him.  Then Gonzalo takes out his snuff box and offers a pinch of snuff to her. Both of them says that they will sneeze three times after  taking  a  pinch  of  snuff  and  finds  it  to  be  a  strange coincidence.  This  unites  Laura  and  Gonzalo  after  the disagreement in the park.

3.    A  number  of  Spanish  writers  are  mentioned  in  the play. Why?

Ans.In  his  conversation  with  Laura,  Don  Gonzalo  reveals his  admiration  to  the  Spanish  Romantic  poets  like Espronceda,  Zorrilla,  Becquer  and  the  Spanish  realist  and philosopher  Ramón  de  Campoamor.  The  mentioning  of these Spanish writers‟ highlights Gonzalo‟s interest on   their  works.  It  also  throws  light  on  the  Spanish  literary heritage.

4.    How  does  Dona  Laura  describe  the  story  of  her death?
Ans. Dona Laura describes that her friend „Laura, the Silver Maiden‟ awaited the news of her beloved for “days, months and  a  year  and  no  letter  came.”  Then  one  day  she  went  to the  sea  shore,  wrote  her  lover‟s  name  on  the  sand  and  sat down upon a rock. The tides rose to the rock and swept her out to sea.  

5.    When  does  Dona  Laura  realize  that  Don  Gonzalo  is her former lover?
Ans. On a sunny autumn morning in a quite corner of a park in Madrid,  Dona  Laura,  a  graceful,  white-haired  lady  of about seventy, is feeding pigeons in the park. Don Gonzalo, a gentleman of seventy, gouty and impatient enters. At first, both  of  them  accuse  each  other  of  encroaching  on  their private space.  But after having a snuff, both  of them  come to  terms  with  each  other  and  start  talking  of  their hometowns  and  other  things.  Then  Laura  reveals  that  she lived  in  a  villa  Maricela,  near  Valencia-one  of  the  largest cities  in Spain.  Gonzalo  is  startled  to  hear  the  name “Maricela.” He then tells that he knows a girl  who lived  in that  villa  in  Maricela,  who  was  perhaps  the  most  beautiful woman  he  has  ever  seen.  He  also  reveals  that  the  girl‟s name was Laura Llorente. This revelation of Gonzalo helps Laura to realize that he was her former lover.

6.    What  happened  to  Gonzalo  and  Laura  after  they separated?
Ans.  Gonzalo  and  Laura  loved  each  other  during  their youthful  days.  But  the  affair  was  not  successful  as  they were  separated  by  fate.  There  was  a  quarrel  between Gonzalo  and  a  suitor  who  was  a  merchant.  The  merchant was badly wounded in the duel and Gonzalo had to conceal himself  for  a  few  days.  Later  he  fled  from  his  hometown to Seville and  then  to Madrid.  Even  though  he  tried  to communicate with Laura through letters, all attempts failed. He  then  joined  the  army  and  went  to Africa.  According  to Don  Gonzalo,  his  „cousin-  the  lover  of  Laura‟  met  with  a glorious  death  in Africa.  Laura  waited  for  her  beloved‟s arrival  for  days,  months  and  a  year.  But  then  one  day  she went  to  the  sea  shore,  wrote  her  lover‟s  name  on  the  sand and  sat  down  upon  a  rock.  The  tides  rose  to  the  rock  and swept  her out to sea. This is  narrated by both Gonzalo and Laura  respectively.  But  in  reality  after  three  months Gonzalo  ran  off  to Paris with  a  ballet  dancer  and  Laura  on the other hand, got married after two years.  

7.    Describe  the  circumstances  leading  to  Gonzalo‟s separation from Laura?
Ans.  Gonzalo  and  Laura,  the  two  former  lovers  had  to separate from each other. In her youthful days, Dona Laura was known in her locality as „The Silver Maiden.‟ She was fair  as  a  lily,  with  jet  black  hair  and  black  eyes.  She  was like  a  dream.  She  was  in  love  with  Gonzalo,  the  gallant lover.  He  used  to  pass  by  on  horseback  every  morning through the rose garden and tossed up a balcony of flowers to her balcony which she caught. On his way back in the  afternoon  she  would  toss  the  flowers  back  to  him.  But Laura‟s  parents  wanted  to  marry  her  off  to  a  merchant whom she disliked. One day there was a quarrel between  Gonzalo  and  the  merchant,  the  suitor.  The  merchant  was badly  wounded  in  the  duel  and  Gonzalo  had  to  conceal himself  for  a  few  days.  Later  he  fled  from  his  hometown to Seville and  then  to Madrid.  Even  though  he  tried  to communicate  with  Laura  through  letters,  all  attempts failed. He then joined the army and went to Africa.  

8.    Precisely at what point of time, do you think, Laura and Gonzalo begin to recognize each other?
Or Trace the  incidents where Laura  and Gonzalo secretly guess about each other‟s identity on the play „A Sunny Morning‟.

Ans.  Dona  Laura  and  Don  Gonzalo  become  friends  soon after  enjoying  a  pinch  of  snuff  offered  by  Don  Gonzalo. While  Don  Gonzalo  is  reading  a  book  aloud,  he  comes across  a  few  lines  of  Spain  poet.  Incidentally,  he  tells Laura  that  it  is  from  Campoamar’s  works.  Then  Dona Laura expresses her sympathy for him as he finds difficult to read the book with his big glasses. At this moment, Don Gonzalo tells  her that he is a great friend  of  many known poets  especially  Campoamar  and  he  has  met  him  in Valencia.  Then  he  adds  that  he  is  a  native  of  Valencia. Dona  Laura  tells  him  that  she  also  has  spent  several seasons  in  her  youth at the  villa called  Maricela, which  is not  far  from  the  city  Valencia.  The  name  Maricela surprises  Don  Gonzalo  and  he  goes  on  to  tell  her  that  he has seen the  most beautiful  woman there. The  moment he tells  her  name  Laura,  both  look  at  each  other  intently. Precisely at this point they begin to recognize each other.  

9.    What were the circumstances that led Gonzalo to flee Valencia?
Ans.The protagonists Dona Laura and Don Gonzalo loved each  other  in  their  young.  Every  day  in  the  morning,  he used to pass by on horseback down the rose path under the Laura’s  window.  While  passing,  Gonzalo  used  to  toss  up her  balcony  a  bouquet  of  flowers,  later  in  the  afternoon while  he  was  returning  by  the  same  path,  he  would  catch the  flowers  she  would  toss  him.  As  days  pass  by,  Laura’s parents  thought  of  marrying  her  to  well-known  merchant in their locality. One unfortunate night, while Gonzalo was waiting under her window to hear her songs, the merchant came  there  unexpectedly  and  insulted  him.  This  led  to  a quarrel and later turned into a duel. At the sunrise, the rich merchant  was  severely  wounded  by  him.  The  merchant was  highly  regarded  in  the  locality  as  he  was  rich  man  in the  city.  Gonzalo  became  apprehensive  of  consequence and  he  decided  to  conceal  for  a  few  days.  Therefore,  he left the place as well his love  

10.    Did  Laura  and  Gonzalo  pine  for  each  other  after they  were  separated  by  circumstances?  Who  is  more passionate? How do they react to each other now?
Ans. The young lovers, Laura and Gonzalo pine after they separated.  Soon  after  Gonzalo  flees  to  Valencia,  then  he joins the army in Africa and meets a glorious death on the  Warfield.  At  this,  Laura  mutters  about  the  story  which  is concocted  cleverly  by  him  and  she  pretends  to  sympathize with  him,  saying  that  he  must  have  been  distressed  by  the calamity. Taking it as a strong pinot, Gonzalo pretends  saying that it is indeed a calamity, but also tries to express his  resentment  and  presumes  that  on  the  contrary  Laura might  have  forgotten  him and she  must  have spent  days  in chasing  butterflies  in  the  garden  without  any  regret.  Dona Laura  protests  saying  no  on  his  comment  that  it  is  a woman’s  way.  She  narrates  a  story  of  her  version  that  the silver  maiden  awaited  the  news  of  Gonzalo  for  a  year.  As she  did  not  receive  any  letters  from  him  and  one  day  she went to sea after sunset, wrote his name on the sand, sat on a  rock.  Knowing  the  threnody  of  her  the  waves  took  her into  the  sea.  He  mutters  himself  that  it  is  a  worse  lie  than his.  They  mutter  themselves  that  they  got  married  after breakup.  From  their  conversation  and  reaction  to  each other,  we  can  conclude  that  Laura  is  more  passionate  as understood  by  the  way  she  narrates  the  end  of  her  friend. Now they are very friendly and sweet to each other without unveil their true identity.

11.    What  makes Dona Laura  assume that Don Gonzalo is an ill-natured man?

Ans. Don Gonzalo is an old gentleman of seventy years old, gouty and impatient. He is found to be in an ill-natured state at  his  first  appearance  itself.  When  he  enters  the  park,  he finds  that  the  bench  on  which  he  used  to  sit  is  being occupied  by  the  three  priests.  So  he  gets  irritation  and expresses  his  annoyance  by  remarking  that  the  priests  are idling  their  time  away  instead  of  sitting  in  the  church. Juanito  suggests  that  he  could  sit  on  the  bench  on  which Dona Laura is seated. But he tells him that he wants a bench to  himself.  This  instance  shows  that  he  is  an  ill-tempered man.  After  having  no  alternatives,  he  decides  to  share  the bench.  While,  he  comes  towards  the  bench  he  scares  the birds away. To this, Laura gets annoy with him and criticize his  actions  but  Don  Gonzalo  replied  her  with  impolite manner. He seems to be  quite rude  when  he replies to her. The  way  he  justifies  his action shows  her that he  is  indeed an ill-natured person. Therefore, she assumes and questions that  why  must  people  get  so  fussy  and  when  they  reach  a certain age.  

12.    Trace  how  irony  is  built  in  the  play.  Did  you  guess the characters past even before they did so?  
Ans.  In  the  play  A  Sunny  Morning,  irony  has  been  built throughout  the  play.  There  are  several  instances  of  irony. The  protagonists  in  the  play  seem  to  be  very  old  but  their mentality serves like young in humorous way. After settling on  her  bench,  Dona  Laura  sends  Petra  to  chat  with  the guard and makes fun of her. Later when he cleans his shoe from  his  handkerchief,  she  mocks  at  him.  Gonzalo  starts reading  lines  aloud  from  Campoamar’s  work,  she  again teases  his  sight.  These  three  instances  make  readers  to laugh.  We  could  guess  the  characters  that  they  are  the  old lovers  before  they  recognize  each  other.  Gonzalo  reads aloud the  lines that ” all  love  is sad, but sad as it  is”  and  ” twenty years pass. He returns. And each beholding the other exclaims can it be that this is he? Heavens, is it she? These lines are much relevant to this play and taken as dramatic  irony and also give a hint that they got separated and their love  ended  with  sad.  After  long  years,  they  are  meeting and  unveiling  their  identity  as  Campoamar‟s  lines.  When they  unveil  their  identity,  both  start  to  conceal  the emotions by narrating concocted story of their end. Thus, a careful  reading  of  the  play  reveals  that  there  is  a relationship between the old lady and the old gentleman.  

13.    Bring out the feelings of Laura and Gonzalo as they leave the park. Is it different from what they felt about each other in the beginning of the play?
Ans. In the beginning of the play, the protagonists enter the park  with  their  servants.  The  conversation  between  these two  seventy  years  old  gets  begun  sarcastically  with  each other  accusing  the  other  of  encroaching  on  their  private space.  Later  they  start  to  criticize  their  actions  each  other as haters. However, their feelings towards each other in the beginning  of  the  play  become  more  evident  only  when Don Gonzalo walks towards her bench, he scares away all the birds. So she warns him in rash, in return he arrogantly replies  which  provokes  her  to  make  a  personal  comment later as he does so. After a few heated exchanges between them  they  take  a  pinch  of  snuff  which  makes  them  relief. Soon after taking snuff they start conversation friendly. By the end of the play, we find a total change in their attitudes towards each other. In the course of their conversation they discover that they were lovers once in their youthful days. But  neither  of  them  is  ready  to  disclose  their  identity. However,  the  animosity  that  we  witness  in  the  beginning of  the  play  is  no  longer  there  when  they  are  ready  to depart.  Before  taking  leave  of  each  other,  they  formally thank  each  other  for  having  met.  Both  think  that  it’s  been great  pleasure  to  meet  and  ensure  that  they  are  coming  to the  park  the  next  day.  Both  of  them  wave  farewell  and leave the place as friends.  

14.    What  do  you  think  would  have  happened  if  they had  revealed  their  identity?  Do  you  think  they  know each other towards the end of the play?

Ans. Once Don Gonzalo and Dona Laura realize that they are  the  same  old  young  lovers  of  Maricela  who  were separated in life by the fate, they make up fictitious stories and  conceal  their  identity.  If  they  are  revealed  their identity both of them would have been utterly shocked and would  have  accused  each  other  of  deceiving  the  other. They  know  that  both  of  them  had  held  the  other  in  high esteem and both of them had fallen deeply in love in their past.  They  wonder  when  both  realize  that  they  are  the lovers  of  Maricela.  They  have  changed  a  lot  in  their appearance.  Don  Gonzalo  has  become  seventy-year-old and  uses  parasol  and  big  glasses  to  read  books.  So  called beauty,  the  silver  Maiden  has  also  become  old  and  her appearance  has  changed  too.  That  is  why,  Dona  Laura after  listening  to  Don  Gonzalo’s  praise  of  her  beauty  as The Silver Maiden  now feels ashamed to  confess that she is  the  old  silver  maiden  of  Maricela.  Similarly,  Don Gonzalo knows that he is grotesque and so wishes to keep his  image  as  a  gallant  horseman  who  everyday  passed under her window by on horseback. Thus they think that it  would  be  better  to  conceal  their  identity  rather  than complaining each other.

15.    How  is  the  title  „A  sunny  Morning‟  justifiable? Discuss.
Or Comment on the tilte „A Sunny Morning‟.

Ans. A Sunny Morning is a short play, written by Quintero brothers.  It  is  a  refreshingly  new  romantic  comedy.  It  tells the story  of Don Gonzalo and Dona Laura, who are ardent lovers at their young age. But their love is  not a successful one  as  they  had  to  part  from  each  other  in  life.  They  meet each  other  in  a  park  at  Madrid  during  their  old  age.  The story  is  presented  in  a  new  pattern  unlike  the  conventional romantic stories.  The  play  begins  in  a  sunny  morning  at  a  park,  the  entire play  occurs  in  an  autumn  sunny  morning.  Here  the  title, sunny morning refers to the youthful of the day and weather seems  to  be  very  pleasant  and  fresh.  The  main  characters are old age, in spite of this, the way they think is very much similar to the young minds. In the beginning of the play she mocks  at  Petra  and  tells  to  chat  with  her  lover.  Generally old  age  people  don’t  support  and  talk  about  love  unlike them.  When  Gonzalo  enters  to  the  park,  they  sarcastically accuse  each  other  like  young  people.  This  youthfulness metaphorically refers to the title of the play.

16.    What are the ‘atrocious’ lies that Laura and Gonzalo make up about their lives after their separation?
Or 

Don  Gonzalo  and  Dona  Laura  outwit  each  other  in weaving stories about their own deaths. Elaborate.
Or                                                                    
Narrate  how,  according  to  Dona  Laura  and  Don Gonzalo, the sad love affair of her friend and his cousin ended.

Ans.  During  the  conversation  with  Dona  Laura,  Don Gonzalo  gives  a romantic  description  of  the  silver  maiden. Dona Laura realizes that the old man is none other than her former  lover  Gonzalo.  Then,  bothof  them  together  narrate their  romantic  affair  until  they  come  to  the  end  of  their story. Don Gonzalo rounds it off telling her that his cousin had  to  hide  himself  for  a  few  days  and  later  to  fly.  At  this point Dona tells  him that he seems to  know the story  well. Don Gonzalo also tells her the same. Dona Laura tells him that she heard the story from her friend. Don Gonzalo picks up the same lie and tells her that he heard the story from his cousin. Both of them are now convinced that they were the former  lovers  of  the  romantic  affair  they  had  just reconstructed.  Dona  Laura  wants  to  probe  further  into  the affair.  Therefore,  she  demands  an  explanation  about Gonzalo’s vanishing from Valencia. In  reply,  Don  Gonzalo  tells  her  that  after  staying  hidden indoors  in  Valencia  for  some  time,  his  cousin  went  to Seville and then came to Madrid, where he  wrote letters to Laura. But, since the letters were intercepted by her parents, she did not get his letters at all and so she did not write back to him. He tells her that Gonzalo, then in despair, believing that he  had  lost  his  love for  ever, joined the army,  went to Africa  and  there  in  a  trench  met  a  glorious  death  grasping the  flag  of  Spain  and  whispering  the  name  of  his  beloved Laura. Immediately, Dona also creates a story.
She tells him that after waiting for a year for Gonzalo, she went to the beach after sunset  one  evening. She  wrote his name  on  the  sand,  and  then  sat  down  on  a  rock,  her  gaze fixed upon the horizon. Then the waves slowly crept up to the rock, where the maiden was sitting and the high rising tide rose with a boom and swept her out to sea. Thus ended the sad love affair

17.  ‘The  ways  of  providence  are  strange’.  How  is  this true  in  the  case  of  Don  Gonzalo  and  Dona  Laura? Explain. 

Ans.  A  Sunny  Morning’  presents  the  story  of  two  young lovers who  were  once passionately attached to  each  other. Their  love  would  have  endedin  their  marriage  but  they were  separated  by  a  cruel  blow  of  fate.  Gonzalo  was  a young man living in Valencia. Not far from his house there was a villa near the sea, known as Maricela. There lived a beautiful  young  lady  Laura  Lorente  and  everyone  called her  „The  Silver  Maiden’.  A  romantic  affair  developed between  the  two.  Gonzalo  used  to  pass  by  on  horseback every  morning  down  the  rose  path  under  her  window  and tossed  up  a  bouquet  of  flowers  to  her  balcony  which  she would catch. Later, in the afternoon,  when  he returned by the same path, he  would  catch the bouquet  of flowers she tossed him. However,the parents of Laura wanted to marry her  to  a  merchant  against  her  wish.  One  night  when Gonzalo  was  waiting  under  her  window  her  merchant- suitor  came  there  unexpectedly  and  insulted  Gonzalo. Soon,  there  resulted  a  duel  (fight)  in  which  Gonzalo injured the  merchant. Since the  merchant was well known in that locality, Gonzalo fled to Seville and then to Madrid. Though,  the  lovers  tried  to  contact  each  other  through letters,  their  letters  were  intercepted  and  they  were separated for ever. However,  the  ways  of  fatebeing  strange,  both  the  lovers Dona  Laura and  Don  Gonzalo  who  are  now  in  their  70’s, meet again in a retired corner of a parkin Madrid. Though initially  they  make  rude  remarks  abouteach  other,  they gradually  discover  that  they  were  the  very  same  lovers  of their youth when they were living in Maricela in Valencia.   

17.    How  effectively  does  Gonzalo  narrate  the  story  of his cousin’s love for Laura’s friend?     
     
Ans. Narrating his storyas his cousin’s, Dona Gonzalo said that his cousin loved the Silver Maiden every morning, he would pass on horseback, tossing up a bouquet of flowers. She  too,  would  toss  them  in  the  evening.  Once,  when Gonzalo’s  cousin  waited  under  her  window  to  hear  her singing,  a  merchant,  whom  she  was  expected  to  marry, appeared  and  insulted  the  cousin.  There  was  aquarrel  that led to a duel. As a result, the merchant was badlywounded. And so, his cousin  had to conceal  himself for a  few  days. Fearing  the  consequences  of  a  duel  with  a  person  highly regarded in that locality, he had to take refuge in his house. He  went  to  Seville  and,  then,  to  Madrid.  He  wrote  many letters  to  Laura.  None  of  the  letters  ever  reached  her,  so they went unanswered. He thought that he had lost his love forever,  joined  the  army,  went  to  Africa  and  there  in  a trench, met a glorious death, grasping the flag of Spain and whispering the name of his beloved, Laura.

18.    Everything  is  fair  in  ‘Love  and  war’.  How  do  you substantiate this statement relating to the attitudes of  Dona  Laura  and  Don  Gonzalo  in  the  play  ‘A  Sunny Morning’?                                                     
Ans.  The  play  A  Sunny  Morning’  is  a  romantic  comedy which  blends  both  the  elements  of  romance  and  comedy. The play  deals  with the  love story  of Dona Laura and Don Gonzalo  and  the  dialogues  of  the  play  are  humorous  and lively.  The  play  begins  in  the  park  where  Dona  Laura  and Don  Gonzalo  meet  when  they  are  old.  They  both  were lovers  when  they  were  young.  But  now,  both  do  not recognize  each  other.  Once,  when  they  start  talking,  they understand  the  reality  but  both  do  not  want  to  reveal  their identities.  One  day  when  Dona  Laura  was  feeding  the pigeons  with  bread  crumbs,  Don  Gonzalo,  the  old  man, comes  with  his  servant  and  sits  on  the  same  bench.  Laura gets angry with Gonzalo for frightening the birds. Both get annoyed with each other. He starts reading poems from his book. Then, he tells her that he belonged to Valencia, a city in Spain. Laura is surprised and tells that she too spent her youth there in a villa called Maricela.  When Gonzalo asks her if she remembered the name Laura, she  lies  to  him  that  she  was  a  friend  of  Laura.  They  both discuss  the  story  of  Laura’s  friend  and  Gonzalo’s  cousin which  was  really  their  own  story.  Laura  tells  him  that  her friend  waited  for  her  lover  for  many  years  and  later  was married  to  a  merchant.  Gonzalo  replies  that  his  cousin joined army and  died as a soldier. In the play,  we find that both the central characters do  not reveal their true identity. They hope to meet every morning there. The play ends on a positive  note  and  we  find  a  beautiful  mix  of  romance  and comedy, last like a sunny morningcold and heat and depart from park.  Here,we see that they  do  not acknowledgethe  fact of  being old but lost lovers; rather theyprefer to think that they have befooled  eachother  with  their  fictitious  stories.  Infact  they donot  want  to  remember  their  past  and  they  want  to  be frozen in time in each other’s memories, as they once were. Their  suchan  attitude  makes  us  to  think  that  everything  is fair in love and war’.  

19.    Give  instance  to  show  Laura‟s  witty  remarks  about Gonzalo in the play „A Sunny Morning‟? 
Ans. Dona Laura a handsome, white haired lady of seventy, refined  in  appearance  her  mental  faculties  unimpaired  and sits  in  a  park  feeding  pigeons.  Dona  Laura  sees  an  old, grumpy man called Don Gonzalo. She makes fun of him in different  ways  as  an  „ill  natured  man‟,  „should  have  asked permission  to  sit  on  bench‟  when  he  sits  there.  When Gonzalo  dusts  his  shoes  she  comments  „do  you  use handkerchief  as  shoe  brush?‟  When  Gonzalo  takes  out glasses to read she comments „thought you were taking out a  telescope‟  and  finally  when  he  boasts  about  hunting animals she says „kill time that is all you kill‟.  

KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER:  

•  On  a  sunny  morning,  Dona  Laura  was  feeding pigeonswith bread crumbs.
•  Laura and Gonzalo met there.
•  He sat on the bench with the old lady.
•  They accused each other for their private seat.
•  A pinch of snuffhelped them to make peace
•  They sneezed three times each.
•  Then they began to chat in a friendly manner.
•  They were old lovers.
•  He remembered her as “The Silver Maiden”.
•  She did not like to marry a merchant.
•  The merchant was badly wounded by Gonzalo.
•  So Gonzalo went to Seville and then to Madrid.
•  Then Gonzalo went to Paris with a ballet dancer.
•  Laura got married after two years.
•  They framed stories about their own death.
•  Laura posed herself to be the friend of the real Laura.
•  Gonzalo  also  posed  as  the  cousin  of  the  dead Gonzalo.  

RECAPITULATION:  

 
•    Meeting between Don Gonzalo and Dona Laura   
•    A sunny morning/Park in Madrid   
•    Complain each other not friendly   
•    A pinch of snuff brings peace   
•    Fictitious  story  of  „The  silver  maiden‟  and  „gallant lover‟   
•    Meeting and exchanging flowers   
•    Dual with the merchant/ the lover hides   
•    Gonzalo writes letters but were intercepted   
•    Gonzalo and Laura get separated   
•    The gallant lover joins army- goes to Africa and dies   
•    The  silver  maiden  leaves  her  house-  goes  to  beach- swept away by waves   
•    Don Gonzalo and Dona Laura hide their real identity

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