A QUESTION OF SPACE
C1.) Read the lesson silently. The sequence of events in the lesson has been given below in a jumbled order. Rearrange them and complete the chart given below. (Refer Paragraphs 1-25)
Answer: Correct Sequence-
4) The conflict had acquired a distinct edge ever since he had met Anuj.
6) Anuj had turned into a friend very quickly, a much older friend.
8) His class grades had dropped; he had started skipping group tuitions.
1) Anuj had started journalism on his own and took up photography later.
7) “It seems to me that the pressure is worse for children of doctors.”
2) “It will help you witness your reactions as if they were happening to someone else.”
5) “If you still have not found out, when do you intend to enroll?”
3) He felt he needed time to pursue his own interests and plea sures, especially after he met Anuj.
C2.) The extract given in the second column tells us about the persons mentioned in the first column. Write your response in the third column. The first one has been done for you. Discuss your responses with your partner.
Extract from the story
What this tells us about them
I am already full up with tuitions
He is finding it difficult to cope with the pressure of his studies.
It would be better if you turned your attention to investigating a coaching centre rather than spend time with junkies and ir-relevant things.
He feels that Vikrant is wasting his time. He wants Vikrant to stop doing other things and focus only on his tuitions. He is least interested in Vikrant’s other interests.
Mother was harping on the importance of the year for getting good grip on Science and Maths.
She wants Vikrant to focus on his studies especially Science and Maths. She wants him on study with complete attention.
If you want to get control over a situation, you could start by observing your body’s reaction
He teaches Vikrant to control the situation. He makes him observe himself which could lead to his development.
C3.) Read the lesson and share your responses before answering the following questions in three or four sentences each:
1.) Vikrant’s mother was harping on the importance of the year. What was she anxious about Vikrant?
Answer: Vikrant’s mother thought that he should focus more on science and maths. She was of the opinion that class XI was important year for him to prepare well for his further studies. According to her he should study more in class XI as it was foundation year for class XII and using this as a practice year for launching into his twelfth board and medical entrance exams.
2.) Anuj had spun into Vikrant’s life like a “new universe.” Why did Vikrant feel so? Who was Anuj?
Answer: Anuj was Vikrant’s new friend who had dynamic ideas on photography. He also had the connectedness between human beings and all other living species, on self-improvement as a part of human evolution, on the cosmos.
3.) The identity of Vikrant with Anuj created tension between Vikrant and his parents.” How did it happen?
Answer: Vikrant’s parents being doctors themselves wanted Vikrant to be a doctor and for that they wanted him to completely concentrate only on studies rather than spending time with Anuj. They consider photography as prestigious and noble job. They wanted Vikrant only to prepare for his medical entrance and nothing else.
4.) Vikrant said, “Medicine is considered ….. gives prestige.” Is this thought prejudiced? Do you agree with this opinion?
Answer: The above thought is very much biased. Though medical profession is a good profession but that doesn’t imply that other professions are inferior. In the society we live there are many professions which help build the society and each profession has its own importance.
5.) What was the reply of Anuj when Vikrant asked him how his suggestions would help him?
Answer: Anuj answered Vikrant saying that, it will help him witness his reactions as if they were happening to someone else. By observing his body and its reactions, he can also distance himself from them. This distance will help him first see, then control his reactions.
6.) When did Vikrant start his self-observation? What did he observe? (Refer to paras. 23-25)
Answer: When Vikrant’s father came up with the topic of Anuj and how Vikrant was wasting time with him and not focusing on studies, then Vikrant observed himself.The remark of his father sent a strong wave of heat through his otherwise weary body, galvanizing him to leave the room without another word.
7.) How did Vikrant’s father try to convince him to join tuitions for medical entrance?
Answer: Vikrant’s father wanted him to join tuitions for medical entrance. He said him that the tuitions for medical entrances were not just tuitions. They coach for a career, for a highly competitive exam. One wrong answer could make all the difference.
8.) What are the last two steps of self-observation suggested by Anuj to Vikrant?
Answer: The first step that Anuj told Vikrant was that when the moment an active feeling comes which he think should be controlled, then he should make a note of it, but don’t express it. And the second involved expressing an emotion opposite what he felt. In other words, if he felt agitated, then he had to choose to be clam.
9.) ‘‘He did this with awareness that it was the right thing for him to do.’’ What does “awareness” refer to here?
Answer: Here “awareness” refers to Vikrant’s realization of taking his entrance seriously for his sake. He enrolled for classes after his class XI realizing that it was the right thing for him to do.
10.) The word, “Space” in the title of the lesson has a significant reference. Comment on the title.
Answer: The word “Space” here emphasizes on our mind. If we balance between our mind and emotions, only then we would be able to focus on what we want in life. It is this space or balance of thinking which will lead us to better life ahead.
C4) Read the following extracts from the lesson carefully and explain each of them with reference to the context.
1.) “Hey! What’s up? You look grim.”
Answer: Reference :The above line is taken from the lesson “A Question of Space” by Neera Kashyap.
Context : The above words were said by Anuj, a friend of Vikrant. When Vikrant’s parents were putting much pressure on him regarding medical entrance, he felt very upset. When he and Anuj were in a park, then Anuj asked the question looking at sad face of Vikrant.
2.) “But tell me, how do you react to pressure?”
Answer: Reference : The above line is taken from the lesson “A Question of Space” by Neera Kashyap.
Context : The above question was asked by Vikrant to Anuj. When Vikrant felt sad and dejected about the pressure his parents were putting on him regarding medical entrance then he asked this question to Anuj.
3.) “Sure… why not? Actually, our range of expression is quite limited.”
Answer: Reference : The above line is taken from the lesson “A Question of Space” by Neera Kashyap
Context : When Anuj told Vikrant to observe his body when he is pressure then Vikrant asks Anuj why he should observe only in pressure and why not when one is happy. It is then Anuj tells him that one can observe body in any emotions. Then he tells him that our range of expression is quite limited.
4.) “If you still have not found out, when do you intend to enroll?”
Answer: Reference : The above line is taken from the lesson “A Question of Space” by Neera Kashyap.
Context :One day at dinner time, Vikrant’s father asked him the above question. He asked him whether he had found any suitable coaching centre for his entrance test or not.
5.) “You cannot really change anything till things are ready for change.”
Answer: Reference : The above line is taken from the lesson “A Question of Space” by Neera Kashyap.
Context : The above piece of advice was given by Anuj to Vikrant. When Anuj saw the discouragement on Vikrant’s face then he advised in above words.
C5.) Discuss the answers for the following questions in groups and then present them before the other groups.
1.) Compare and contrast the characters Vikrant and Anuj. Who would you like to be? Vikrat or Anuj? Justify your answer.
Answer: Vikrant is a young boy studying in Class XI. His parents want him to doctor just like them. But he is kind of boy who is not clear in his approach and thoughts. He cannot take his parents’ pressure and gets dejected. He is someone who gets lost in his confused thoughts and cannot decide his directions. On the other hand his friend Anuj is wise and balanced. Anuj is much older than Vikrant. He is into photo journalism. His thoughts and ideas are clear and he has confidence. It is Anuj who is the guiding light in Vikrant’s life. Anuj advises him on how to control his emotions and how to be calm. He makes him clear in his thoughts and approach. He teachesVikrant to observe himself and bring changes in his life. I would like to be Anuj because his approach in life is simple and optimistic. He doesn’t have negative thoughts and is clear.
2.) After Vikranth follows Anuj’s advice, we observe a change in his attitude and behaviour. Trace the chain of these changes.
Answer: When Vikrant advised Anuj to observe himself and control emotion, then Vikrant follows the same. He observed his bodily changes when he became upset. He noticed that his mouth was dry, his head tight at the temples, his body slightly hunched. He realized that what Anuj told was right and felt to change the situation. It was then Anuj once again advised him react in opposite of what he felt. If he felt agitated then he should choose to remain calm. And Vikrant followed this too and to his surprise his body reacted in another way and there was much positive change in him. Even his parents started to take things from Vikrant’s side and this is how Anuj’s advice helped Vikrant get the right direction in his life.
3.) What is the role played by Anuj in this lesson? What message does the author convey to the reader through this character?
Answer: The role played by Anuj was the most important in Vikrant’s life. He was not only Vikrant’s friend but he became his mentor and brought positive changes in his life. It is because of Anuj that Vikrant starts observing himself and there is a positive change in his life. He advises Vikrant to stay calm and control his agitated emotions to get clear path. In this way Vikrant was able to enroll his name in entrance centre. Had it not been Anuj then Vikrant would have became confused and lost his right track in life. Anuj played a major role in changing life of Vikrant and his thoughts. The author wants to tell the readers that anyone can be our mentor and take us to the right path. We should not judge anyone based on his/her profession. In the lesson Vikrant’s parents judged him calling him junkie which was completely wrong. It was because of Anuj that Vikarnt’s thoughts became clearer and chose the right path.
V.1.) The nouns such as pleasure, spontaneity, excitement etc. are used to express actions, emotions or feelings and the quality of actions. Pick out such words from the lesson which express emotions and put them under the following columns.
V2.) Match the words in column A (they are words related to professions and the people who do them) with the corresponding meaning given in column B. You can use a dictionary to verify your answers.
1) Stevedore – b) one who loads and unloads ships
2) Chauffeur – c) one who drives a car for someone else
3) Geologist – a) one who studies rocks and soils
4) Juggler – e) one who performs tricks with the hands to amuse others
5) Anthropologist – f) one who studies human development
6) Auditor – g) one who examines the financial records of a company
7) Curator – d) one who is in charge of a museum
1. A) Complete the following sentences with a phrasal verb that includes one of the particles and one of the verbs given below.
Particles are words which can be used as adverbs or prepositions in other contexts.
Particles : down, in, out, up
Verbs : turn, come, slow, let, go, drop, grow, warm, plug.
Example – a) Please ____ _____ for a cup of coffee whenever you are passing.
1. b) Would you _____ (turn) the television _____, please. It’s very loud. Ans : turn down
1.) The dentist says John will have to let two teeth go.
2.) Videos are cheaper now. Prices have actually come down since the 1980s.
3.) He could play the guitar when he was six. I think he’s going to be musical when he grows up.
4.) Slow down! You are driving much too fast!
5.) Smoking is not allowed in here. Please drop that cigarette down.
6.) You must be very cold. Sit by the fire and warm up.
7.) There’s someone at the door. Can you let them in please?
8.) Look, there’s the plug on the floor. You haven’t plugged the television in.
1. B) Find the meanings of the following phrasal verbs and use them in sentences of your own using a dictionary.
1.) Come across – Meet/ find someone by chance.
I came across my old friend at market yesterday.
2.) Get on – Have a good relation with someone.
I get on with my mother-in-law.
3.) Take part – To participate in something
We have decided to take part in Women’s Day Function.
4.) Get away – Manage to leave a place
I got away from that boring birthday party.
5.) Get through – Deal with difficult situation
She got through the hard times very bravely.
6.) Keep out – To stop or prevent someone or something
Keep the babies out of the sun.
7.) Think over – Consider a problem or decision carefully.
Think over your marriage.
8.) Take down – To write a note.
I have taken down important points of the lecture.
9.) Look into. – To examine something
We are looking into the matter.
1. C) Using the dictionary match the meanings of the phrasal verbs in column A with their meanings in column B.
1.) call on – speak
2.) call in – allow
3.) call at – visit
4.) call off – postpone
5.) come by – obtain by accident
6.) come into – inherit
7.) come about – happen
8.) come off – succeed
9.) come across – meet
GI.) Comment on the information using a comparative and superlative adjective.
1.) Venus has a diameter of 12,104 kilometers. It isn’t as big as the Earth, which has a diameter of 12,756 kilometers.
Answer: The Earth is bigger than Earth in diameter.
2.) The Mona Lisa is worth many millions of dollars. No other picture in the world is so valuable.
Answer: The Mona Lisa is the most valuable picture in the world.
3.) Telecom Tower is 180 metres tall, but Canada Tower in East London is 250 metres tall.
Answer: Canada Tower is taller than taller than Telecom Tower.
4.) Cambridge University dates from 1284, but it is not as old as Oxford University, which dates from 1167.
Answer: Oxford University is older than Cambridge University.
5.) Toby, who lived in New York, was a much-loved dog. When his owner died, she left $75 million, which made him a world record breaker among wealthy dogs.
Toby was the wealthiest dog in the world.
No other dog in the world was as wealthy as Toby.
1. B) Read the following article in which the writer compares the treatment of boys and girls.
Complete the article by filling in the spaces with appropriate words from the box given below.
than few less much as many For many parents, especially those who are poor and illiterate, a girl is a ‘lesser child’. Doesn’t it make you mad to know that girls aren’t given an equal chance to be born? Though female infanticide was banned by law over a century ago, thousands of girls are still killed before they are born or when they are babies. Even the girls who are allowed to survive, live with less of everything. Fewer girls are sent to school than boys. They get less medical care, so many girls die. Boys get more nutritious food and also more time to play. Few jobs are open to girls, and even if they are employed, they are not paid as much as boys. Most of all, they get less respect. They are not given as many opportunities as boys to speak out on matters that concern them. And yet a girl usually does twice as much work as a boy, not only in the house, but also in the fields.
This discrimination and bias must end, and end now! Can we count on your support?
1. C) Read the information and complete the sentences using more, most, less, least, fewer, or fewest.
Examples : 1) Workers in the Third World don’t earn as much money as those in Europe.
Workers in the Third World earn less money than those in Europe.
2) Sarah took lots of photos at the wedding. None elsetook as many.
Sarah took the most photos.
1.) There isn’t as much crime in country as there is in the cities.
There’s less crime in country areas than in the cities.
2.) No other state of the US has as much rain as Louisiana.
Louisiana has the mostrain among all the states of US.
3.) The Green Party candidate didn’t get many votes. All the other candidates got more.
The Green Party candidate got the fewest votes.
4.) There are lots of passengers on the buses in the daytime, but not so many in the evenings.
In the evenings there are few passengers on the buses.
5.) At the moment Arsenal has 42 points. No other club has more than 37.
Arsenal has the most points.
6.) Sellco has made very little profit. In fact it has made less than any other supermarket.
Sellco has made the least profit.
7.) The accident rate among young drivers is higher than among older drivers.
Young drivers meet more with accidents than older drivers.
1. D) Complete the conversation. Put in less, least, more, most, or as.
Lobo : I’m going to Delhi next week, so I’ll have to book my flight.
I think it’ll be more convenient to go by air than by train.
Peter : I’d go by train. Trains are more comfortable than planes.
Lobo : But the train fare is really expensive. The plane isn’t as expensive as the train, which always surprises me.
Peter : I hate flying. It’s my least favourite means of transport.
Lobo : Well, I don’t mind it. And I’m not as keen on trains as you are. A short flight is less boring than a long train journey.
Peter : I’d rather drive than fly.
Lobo : I’m definitely not driving. No, thank you. Driving all that way would be the most stressful way of getting there.
Peter : I don’t think driving is as stressful as flying.
Lobo : Well, it is to me.
Peter : And will you be able to get a flight at the right time? Planes are less frequent than trains, aren’t they?
Lobo : Oh, there are plenty of flights. There’s one at ten in the morning. That’ll be the most convenient.
1. E) Comparatives with “the …the…”
Rewrite the sentences using the …the
1.) How well I sleep depends on how late I go to bed.
Answer: The later I go to sleep, the better I sleep.
2.) I don’t spend much time with my family because I work so hard.
Answer: The more I work harder, the lesser time I get to spend with my family.
3.) The traffic moves very slowly as more cars come into the city.
Answer: The more cars come into the city, the slower the traffic moves.
4.) How much you sweat depends on how hot you feel.
Answer: The hotter you feel, the more you sweat.
5.) The idea becomes less attractive as I think about it more.
Answer: The more I think about it, the lesser attractive the idea becomes.
6.) How much petrol a car uses depends on the size of the engine.
Answer: The bigger the size of the engine, the more petrol the car uses.
1. F) Superlatives.
Which of the following do you like the best? Write one or two sentences comparing your choices as shown in the example.
1.) Fresh fruit juice, Coca cola, Maza.
Answer: I like fresh juice best because it is healthy.
I like Coca cola best because it is cool.
I like Maza best because it is tasty like a mango.
2.) Disco dance, Indian classic, Pop dance.
Answer: I like Disco dance best because it gives happy vibes.
I like Indian classic best because Indian culture is reflected in it.
I like Pop dance best because it lifts the mood.
3.) Dance, singing, drama.
Answer: I like dancing best because it makes me feel energetic.
I like singing best because it calms one’s mood.
I like drama best because it reflects many human emotions.
4.) Fruit, chocolates, ice creams.
Answer: I like fruit best because it is good for our health.
I like chocolates best because they are tasty.
I like ice creams best because they make me happy.
1. G) Error Correction
Each sentence below contains an error. Identify and correct the error, and rewrite the sentences correctly. One example is given below.
Example The population of China is great than that of India.
Correction : The population of China is greater than that of India.
1.) The faster land animal in the world is cheetah.
Answer: The fastest land animal in the world is cheetah.
2.) His grade is the same as mine.
Answer: His grades are the same as mine.
3.) Sarla is slightly taller to Suman.
Answer: Sarla is slightly taller than Suman.
4.) Our house is bigger as than yours.
Answer: Our house is bigger than yours.
5.) The Vidhana Soudha is most prominent building in Bengaluru.
Answer: The Vidhana Soudha is the most prominent building in Bengaluru